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¿Qué es SCORM?
SCORM (del inglés Sharable Content Object Reference Model), traducible al español como Modelo Referenciado de Objetos de Contenido Compartible, fue desarrollado como un resultado de colaboración en los sectores público y privado. El presidente de los estados Unidos de Norte-América, Bill Clinton firmó una orden ejecutiva que creó una agencia (ADL) para supervisar el estándar para desarrollar y distribuir enseñanza en línea. Todas las agencias federales de los EEUUAA están obligadas a usar programas que cumplan con estos estándares. SCORM es un resultado de esa orden ejecutiva.
Hay una introducción muy simple en idioma ingles sobre "What is SCORM" aquí: http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=3757#p18828
Aquí hay una introducción un poco más detallada: http://www.rusticisoftware.com/resources/whatisscorm/What%20Is%20SCORM.ht
¿Debería de hacer mis cursos Moodle como SCORM o usar las características de Moodle?
Depende de como pretende usarlo. Si Usted está planeando exportar su curso y usarlo en otro Sistema de Gestión del Aprendizaje entonces SCORM lo haría más fácil. Si quiere algo brillante, entonces un paquete SCORM podría ajustarse al requisito. Sin embargo, el trabajo de reportes y calificación funciona mejor en Moodle y para muchos educadores las características estándares hacen el trabajo perfectamente y no requieren aprender un nuevo programa. Hay una publicación en foro útil que discute los pros y los contras de SCORM en Moodle aquí: http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=200242
Información sobre SCORM
Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) is the organization that wrote the SCORM standard. You can download documentation and samples form ADL's Web site. Documentation for SCORM 1.2 in several languages is available here.
Paquetes de Contenido SCORM
Paquetes de Contenido AICC
An AICC package is defined by several files (from 4 to 7) with defined extensions as follows:
- CRS - Course Description file (mandatory)
- AU - Assignable Unit file (mandatory)
- DES - Descriptor file (mandatory)
- CST - Course Structure file (mandatory)
- ORE - Objective Relationship file (optional)
- PRE - Prerequisites file (optional)
- CMP - Completition Requirements file (optional)
Solución básica de problemas
- Asegúrese de que está ejecutando Moodle 2.1 o superior; muchos problemas relacionados con SCORM están presentes en versiones antiguas de Moodle.
- Asegúrese de que sus objetos SCORM cumplan con SCORM - revíselos en un reproductor SCORM externo como Reload para ver si funcionan allí.
- Suba una copia de su objeto SCORM a un Servicio de alojamiento de archivos y publique un mensaje que solicite ayuda en los foros, que ligue hacia su objeto SCORM y que explique exactamente lo que Usted espera que suceda y lo que en realidad sucede.
- Lea la publicación del blog de Dan Marsde here (Maintainer of SCORM Module in Moodle)
¿Genera Moodle Contenido SCORM?
Moodle NO genera contenido SCORM. Moodle presenta el contenido de paquetes SCORM a los estudiantes y guarda los datos de las interacciones de los estudiantes con el paquete SCORM.
¿Puedo añadirle una contraseña para acceso a mi paquete SCORM?
No, although there is a tracker request for this: MDL-46403 As a workaround you could add your SCORM package using the single activity course format - see Formatos de curso - and add an enrolment key to the course.
- SCORM 1.2 is supported in Moodle 2.1(or higher) and passes all the tests in the ADL Conformance test suite 1.2.7 for SCORM 1.2. The best place for information on SCORM 1.2 conformance is the SCORM Comformance Requirements documentation (PDF 3.4MB).
- SCORM 2004 is not supported in Moodle. Parts of the API have been implemented, but others such as Navigation and Sequencing have not. Development on native SCORM 2004 support in Moodle has stopped. If you require a fully certified SCORM 2004 Player in Moodle, Rustici Software have a Moodle plugin which connects to their commercial SCORM Cloud service turning Moodle into a fully compliant SCORM 2004 LMS.
- AICC objects are supported in Moodle 2.1 and higher.
- Tin Can is supported with a number of 3rd party plugins such as logstore xAPI (allows reporting logging data to an external LRS) and mod_tincanlaunch (allows launching tin can content packages within Moodle.
Pidiendo ayuda en el foro en idioma inglés sobre SCORM
When trying to engage the community to help with a problem you are facing, you will get a better response if you follow a few simple guidelines:
- Always start your report with version information - preferably the information displayed on the Admin -> Environment panel eg. http://localhost/moodle/admin/environment.php where http://localhost/moodle is your particular prefix. With this it will be clear how you are running your Moodle instance, on what platform, and at which version. This will quickly expose issues where a simple upgrade will solve your problem.
- Be prepared to provide the SCORM package that illustrates your problem - if you don't then it will be very difficult for anyone offering assistance to recreate your situation - a real barrier to help.
- Screenshots are very helpful. Provide a screenshot of all error messages, and any instance where something seems to go wrong in the interface.
- Nonstandard themes can introduce SCORM issues. Be sure to tell us what theme you're using.
- If you have admin privileges, and have access to a localhost install or other place where real-time users won't be disturbed, be sure to turn on debugging. Navigate to Site Administration > Development > Debugging and set Debug messages: Developer and Display debug messages: Yes. Access the SCORM content. If there are errors printed to the page, include them in your forum post.
- Run your problematic SCORM package through API debugging (see below) and include the text of that API log with your post. That way we can see right away if the right function calls are not taking place.
- If you're using a content development suite which publishes to SCORM, such as Articulate, Captivate, Lectora, LessonBuilder, Udutu, or some other product, then include that in your post. Every authoring software has its ticks, and if you've run into one, it's likely that someone else has also dealt with it, and will recognize it. However, please keep in mind that this is a place to get help with Moodle issues, not help with your SCORM package authoring suite.
Solución de problemas
- Debugging settings are located at Settings > Site Administration > Plugins > Activities > Scorm.
- Check the checkbox for Activate API debug...
- Set the api mask. You can use the mask to enable debugging under certain conditions. For example, if you are logged in using the admin user (username admin) you can set the api mask to: admin.* Users not logged in as admin will not see the debugging log. The "Default" api mask is .*
¿Qué significa la bitácora de depuración (debugging log)?
The SCO commonly sends the following communications through the API:
- LMSInitialize(); opens the connection between the SCO and Moodle
- LMSGetValue( 'valuename' ); gets a value from Moodle
- LMSSetValue( 'valuename' , 'value' ); sends a value to Moodle
- LMSCommit(); saves values sent to Moodle via LMSSetValue() and should be called after every LMSSetValue()
- LMSFinish() saves values sent to Moodle and closes the connection between the SCO And Moodle
Red lines in the debugging log means there was an error in the communication through the API.
If LMSInitialize() fails, returns an error, then no subsequent values sent to Moodle will be saved.
Click through the entire SCORM package. Then access the scorm report for your attempt, and compare the saved values in the debugging log with Moodle's report of the attempt. If the values set in the debug log do not match the values saved to Moodle, then there may be a problem with Moodle. Otherwise it's likely to be an issue with the SCO or the SCORM activity settings not giving you the functionality you need.
Privacidad de SCORM
Typically a SCORM package is stand-alone and does not communicate externally so all the data is stored within your system, however there are some cases where a SCORM package may interact with an external system that you should be aware of.
The SCORM standard allows SCORM packages to request the users name and id (Moodle passes the username or id depending on settings) - in most cases this is only used within the display of the SCORM package and is not passed to an external system, however there are 2 cases below where this might occur.
- AICC HACP - This is a type of content package that is hosted externally to your LMS - This method is disabled by default in Moodle but if enabled, allows a teacher to add an AICC HACP content package to a course using the SCORM plugin. Usually these are commercial off-the-shelf content packages that you would be paying a subscription license for. AICC settings in Moodle allow you to choose if the username or user->id field is sent in the external request and like mentioned above, it can also request the users full-name. In this case it is likely that the externally hosted AICC package may store user data.
SCORM y el Libro de Calificaciones
Some SCORM packages report both cmi.core.lesson_status and cmi.core.score.raw. Others report only cmi.core.lesson_status, or only cmi.core.score.raw. The Grading Method setting for SCORM objects is meant to account for that.
If you have the Grading Method set to Highest grade, Average grade, or Sum grade, and your learning object does not report a score, only, cmi.core.lesson_status, then there will be no numerical score to pass to the gradebook.
If your SCOs do not report cmi.core.score.raw, then the best Grading Method setting is Learning Objects. This reports either a 1 or a 0 as a score for each learning object. The gradebook value for that SCORM activity is the percent of scos in the package for which learners got a 1.
On the other hand, if your SCOs do not report a lesson_status, then select one of the score-based Grading Method options, such as Highest grade, Average grade, or Sum grade, and not Learning Objects.
If you do not know what your SCOs are reporting to the LMS, then run them through to completion with debugging on.
Much of the way SCORM objects are graded is controlled inside the SCORM Authoring process before it is packaged for use in an LMS like Moodle - make sure all your grading settings are set correctly.
Opciones para la Administración de SCORM
Dificultad para Mostrar un Paquete SCORM
If you have difficulty displaying a SCORM, try loading the SCORM in Reload and re-saving it, then save the folder as a .zip package and try again.
Errores en la Visualización de Caracteres
When you notice there is a problem displaying characters correctly, it could be a misconfiguration of your server. Make sure that both httpd.conf (when using Apache) and php.ini are set to DefaultCharacterset = utf8 or switch the sending of a default character set off.
Advertencia sobre slash arguments cuando añado/actualizo objetos SCORM en mi curso
Some web servers don't support a function called slash arguments and so Moodle allows you to turn it off, but SCORM packages require slash arguments to be enabled on the web server in order to work properly.
Vea Usando slash arguments para más detalles.
SCORM no funciona en sitio alojado en Godaddy
Godaddy hosts give a 404 file not found error - this is because by default they do not allow slash arguments which SCORM requires. The best way to test this is to visit http://yourmoodlesite/admin/tool/health/index.php - but the fix involves adding a php.ini or php5.ini file with the following text:
Mi Contenido Basado-en-Flash Carga y después se Pasma
This issue is most commonly associated with zlib compression. Classic presentation is that the base HTML file and SWF are loaded into the SCORM player, but the SWF is not able to load any audio or video assets, and therefore stalls. You can watch the loading of SWFs and assets using Chrome's Developer Tools or other.
Check your site's zlib compression settings as an admin by loading up the Server > phpinfo page. zlib compression is not a Moodle setting but a server setting, so you'll need a server admin to disable it. Be sure to Purge All Caches, and clear browser caches, before confirming the change.
Advertencia Zlib cuando añado/actualizo objetos SCORM en mi curso
Zlib is a php compression setting made in a websites PHP configuration - unfortunately some browsers don't handle this well (especially Internet Explorer 6) Some webhosts enable this setting, but it will likely cause issues for your users when they attempt to view/use the SCORM object. You will need to contact your server administrator to turn this off. The setting to change in php configuration is "zlib.output_compression"
Paquete de archivo Incorrecto - falta imsmanifest.xml o estructura AICC
This means that Moodle cannot find a file called imsmanifest.xml inside the SCORM object. Reasons for this could be:
- imsmanifest.xml needs to be immediately inside the scorm directory, NOT inside a directory inside of that. So if the zipped scorm package is package.zip, the unzipped package directory should contain immediately inside of it the imsmanifest.xml. This is a common mistake and normally occurs when a SCORM author creates a package themselves and then selects that folder to compress. This places the content folder inside of another folder, The imsmanifest.xml is there, but it is 2 directories deep. To avoid this problem when zipping scorm content into a package, go INSIDE of the exported scorm folder, select all files inside, and compress them while all are selected. The resultant compressed directory has the imsmanifest.xml file in the first directory, immediately available to the moodle scorm loading process.
- when using linux based systems the filename imsmanifest.xml must be all in lowercase not IMSmanifest.xml or Imsmanifest.XML
- The SCORM authoring tool Articulate sometimes fails to create the imsmanifest.xml -Try exporting the package again and see if the manifest is generated.
- The SCORM authoring tool Articulate Presenter will publish packages where the imsmanifest.xml file is in the correct place, but there are several lines of white space in the manifest file if you do not fill out the Reporting and Tracking Options in Articulate Presenter for Keywords and LMS Description. Moodle will give a "Manifest not found" error when encountering this. To fix this problem select the Reporting and Tracking Options in the Articulate Presenter publish dialog and fill in the LMS Description and Keywords.
Error de archivo no encontrado
You have this error if the scorm package is created in moodle, and the scorm menu loads, but inside of the viewing area for the scorm content, you get a page with a 404 file not found error, usually showing the current Moodle theme.
What this means is that one of the files listed in the imsmanifest.xml is not in the scorm package or not in the correct directory.
Download and unzip the package, open up imsmanifest.xml. At the bottom of the xml file, below any metadata, you'll find a place where organizations and resources for those organizations are designated:
<organizations default="TOC1"> <organization identifier="TOC1"> <title>SCORM Test</title> <item identifier="I_SCO0" identifierref="SCO0"> <title>Library Quiz</title> <adlcp:masteryscore>0</adlcp:masteryscore> </item> </organization> </organizations> <resources> <resource identifier="SCO0" type="webcontent" adlcp:scormtype="sco" href="scorm.html"> <file href="scorm.html"/> <dependency identifierref="ALLRESOURCES" /> </resource> <resource identifier="ALLRESOURCES" type="webcontent" adlcp:scormtype="asset"> <file href="scorm.html" /> <file href="scorm.js" /> <file href="swfobject.js" /> <file href="scorm.swf" /> <file href="scormwrapper.js" /> </resource> </resources> </manifest>
In this xml, we have a single organization, and in that organization is a single resource, a single sco. There are 5 files necessary for that resource to work correctly. The scorm.html file is loaded first. It loads 3 external js files and a swf.
What you need to do now is go to the directory containing imsmanifest.xml, and check that all of those listed files are available at the correct path from imsmanfiest.xml, as listed in imsmanifest.xml. If any one of those files is missing (especially the html file or the swf), or if the paths in imsmanifest.xml are incorrect, then it's very likely that the scorm object won't be able to load at all.
Sometimes the files aren't missing, but are simply misnamed in the manifest, or placed in the wrong directory. You can fix this by moving the files to the correct places, or updating their names so that the imsmanifest and the actual file names match up. In the case of a misnamed file, change the manifest rather than the actual file names, since the the files also reference one another in other places!
Problemas al descomprimir (Unzip)
If you get a blank page after filling in the title, description, and selecting a large SCORM file, it's likely you haven't installed the PHP-zip lib which is required for Moodle 2.x for more info see admin/environment/php_extension/zip
Borrar un Intento
To clear attempts by a student:
- Go to the SCORM activity and select the link "View reports for x users"
- Select the attempt or attempts you want to clear using the checkbox
- Select Delete in the drop-down box at the bottom of the page
Manejo de Intentos Múltiples
SCORM is designed to allow a learner to exit and return at a later date to the same point they left from. This means that each time they enter the SCORM they are using the same single attempt. Some SCORM packages are intelligent about handling re-entry, many are not. What this means is that if the learner re-enters an existing attempt, if the SCORM content does not have internal logic to avoid overwriting cmi.core.lesson_status and cmi.core.score.raw, they can be overwritten by a lower score, confusing the learner.
When a SCORM sets the cmi.core.lesson_status value to 'completed', 'passed' or 'failed' then Moodle allows the user to create a new attempt by adding a Start new attempt checkbox to the entry page. If cmi.core.lesson_status is set to 'incomplete', 'browsed' or 'notattempted' the learner can only re-enter the existing attempt. If you are using the setting 'Student skip content structure page', this checkbox will never be shown to the user.
Moodle provides a range of settings to allow this to be controlled, some of these settings are hidden by default as advanced options.
- Number of attempts
- This allows the teacher to set how many SCORM attempts the learner may create - this is not how many times a learner can re-enter a SCORM attempt.
- Attempts grading
- This allows the teacher to set how multiple SCORM attempts(not re-entries) are graded. It is important to note that a 'failed' cmi.core_lesson_status allows a new attempt to be generated but the attempts grading setting "last completed attempt" only includes 'completed' and 'passed' values in it's calculations.
- Display attempt status
- This displays a users SCORM attempts and how their final grade is calculated on the SCORM entry page and the My Moodle page for the learner.
- Force completed
- This is a setting that can be used to force a SCORM package to report a 'completed' cmi.core.lesson_status if it doesn't currently set the value.
- Force new attempt
- This hides the Start new attempt checkbox and will force a new attempt if the previous attempt has cmi.core.lesson_status value to 'completed', 'passed' or 'failed' (disabling "review mode")- this setting can also be used to make sure a new attempt is generated when the 'Student skip content structure page' setting is used.
- Lock after final attempt
- This prevents access to the SCORM after the total number of attempts have been used - if this is not set the learner can re-enter their last attempt (in review mode) and potentially change/overwrite their score each time depending on how the SCORM package supports multiple re-entries.
Reduciendo el Tiempo de Carga con Captivate
- Modify the percent that must be downloaded before the content starts to play. In Captivate 4, there's a setting in: Preferences / Project / Start and End / Preload. Reduce that to 50%.
- If you use audio in your Cp file (as background or element attachment), try to put a gap of 0,1 second at the beginning of each element including audio on your slides. If you don't do that, Cp merge all the audio files in one big audio file it need to download before playing the project. This problem have been report many times from the Cp community.
Moodle cambia cmi.core.lesson_status de "completed" o "passed" hacia "failed"
Many SCORM authorware suites generate a masteryscore node in the imsmanifest.xml by default. This node is not necessary to the XML file. But when it is there, the SCORM standard designates specific behaviour with regard to the value set there.
This can also be controlled in Moodle using the setting "Mastery score overrides status" If this setting is enabled and a mastery score is provided within your package, when LMSFinish is called and a raw score has been set, if the raw score is lower than the mastery score, the lesson status will be overridden and set to "failed"
Here's what is in the scorm standard, on page 35 of 155 in SCORM_1.2_ConformanceReq.pdf, numbered page 2-19 (SCORM Version 1.2 Conformance Requirements Version 1.2):
If the value for this element is not set to “incomplete” by the SCO, then the LMS shall re-evaluate and change the value based on the following:
- If there is no mastery score in the Manifest, and the SCO sets a score (cmi.core.score.raw) and the lesson_status (cmi.core.lesson_status) then the LMS shall not override the SCO determined status.
- If there is a mastery score in the Manifest, the LMS can change the status to either passed or failed depending on the student's score (cmi.core.score.raw) compared to the mastery score.
- If the student is taking the SCO for no-credit, (cmi.core.credit = “no-credit”) there is no change to the lesson_status, with one exception. If the lesson_mode (cmi.core.lesson_mode) is "browse", the lesson_status may change to "browsed" even if the cmi.core.credit is set to no-credit.
This can result in some functionality you don't intend. You can fix the problem by removing the mastery score node from your imsmanifest.xml file or by adjusting the Moodle setting "Mastery score overrides status". You may also want to find out what options you have, within your authorware suite, for the writing of that node into the manifest file, and change your authoring process accordingly.
The Rustici SCORM Cloud default operating behaviour for masteryscore is different from Moodle's default operating behaviour - you can see a little bit of the history around the way Rustici handle this here: http://scorm.com/blog/2010/09/anatomy-of-scorm-minutiae-mistake/
Aspecto del Reproductor
You should be able to adjust height and width settings for the SCORM player window so long as your theme is based on/not too much of an aberration from one of the standard themes which ship with Moodle 2.
If your site or course theme isn't closely based on one of the standard M2 themes, then it's possible that your theme CSS is overriding local height and width settings for the SCORM player. Have a Web developer (or a Moodle Partner) examine how your theme is interacting with the player layout, and make changes to your theme as needed.
Why can't I just change it locally? You can change height and width per individual SCORM package, and you can set defaults for these local height and width values ( Opciones para la Administración de SCORM ). Other things, such as colors, shading, borders, backgrounds, are controlled by CSS, just like everything else on the site.
If you receive a " found more than one record!" error when trying to run your SCORM 1.2 package check the imsmanifest.xml file of your SCORM package and ensure that the values for <organization identifier> and <item identifier> are unique. To change the <organization identifier>, in Courselab, go to File > Course Runtime Settings. The dialog says 'Course identification in LMS' but changing the Identifier field is what sets the <organization identifier>. (see MDL-38060 for more information)
Resultados de SCORM eliminados después de la actualización del paquete
When uploading a SCORM package over a previous one, if the item identifier in the manifest file is different to the one being overwritten then the tracking data for that SCORM package in Moodle is deleted.
Ensure the item identifier is the same for the new SCORM resource
Problemas con la responsividad
Sometimes SCORMs fail on responsiveness or the ability to scroll on mobile devices
- Moodle uses iFrames for deploying SCORM. https://community.adaptlearning.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=180#p863
- There can be some problems with this as they are not responsive in iOS https://community.adaptlearning.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=1446#p6687
- There are some potential work arounds.
- Totara has a new window. #https://community.adaptlearning.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=851#p3968
- This comment https://community.adaptlearning.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=787#p3661
- Solutions for Adapt: https://github.com/adaptlearning/adapt_framework/issues/210
- The tracker:
- https://tracker.moodle.org/browse/MDL-47500 problems with pages.
- Why iFrames fail with iOS, one person's view: https://community.adaptlearning.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=926#p4714
This seems to be a problem that lies between the browsers (eg faults in iOS) the creation of the SCORM package and the LMS (in this case the iFrames in Moodle).
One quite comprehensive idea for a work around is here: https://community.adaptlearning.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=180 but there is really no evidence at the moment of a nicer solution.
- SCORM doesn't work blog post from developer Dan Marsden
- SCORM 2004 in Moodle blog post from developer Dan Marsden
- Identifiers to change with updated SCORM module
Por favor publíquelas en el foro en idioma inglés SCORM forum en moodle.org.