# TinyMCE editor

## What is TinyMCE?

TinyMCE is a powerful rich-text editor that allows users to create formatted content within a user-friendly interface.

The popular editor can be enabled or disabled and set as default from Administration > Site administration > Plugins > Text editors > Manage editors.

If enabled, users may select the TinyMCE editor from the User menu > Preferences > Editor preferences. Note: an earlier version, the TinyMCE editor (legacy) is also available, although it is recommended to disable it if you plan to use the newer version. The newer version is more accessible and will eventually replace the current default Atto editor.

## Tiny Toolbar

The following buttons are available on the toolbar (not all buttons might show in all scenarios):

The available buttons are as follows:

# Button # Button # Button
1 Undo 10 Align left 18 Bullets list
2 Redo 11 Align center 19 Numbered list
3 Bold 12 Align right 20 Equation editor
4 Italics 13 Justify 21 Toggle second toolbar (if present)
5 Insert image / modify image properties 14 Decrease indent
6 Insert video / modify video properties 15 Increase indent
7 Record audio 16 Left to right directionality
8 Record video 17 Right to left directionality
9 Insert H5P / modify H5P properties

Some button have pre-requisites to display, for instance, the equation editor button will only show if either the MathJax or the TeX notation filters are enabled (in Site administration > Plugins > Filters > Manage filters), while the H5P option will only show if the tiny/h5p:addembed capability has been granted.

## Tiny features

The following features are available from the Insert menu:

### Insert / Edit image

The easiest way to insert an image is via drag'n'drop. Alternatively, you can use the Insert image tool, which gives you more control over some image properties:

• URL: The (internal or external) address of the image. You can either enter a URL manually or select an image from the repository browser, which adds the URL automatically.
• Description: Unless the image is labelled decorative only, a description must be provided for screenreader users
• Size: Initially, the image's width and height are set. These can be adjusted to fit your text. When the Auto size checkbox remains ticked, the image's width-height ratio stays intact.
• Alignment: Options are Top, Middle, and Bottom.

To modify image properties once it has been added to your text, select the image and press the Image button on the mini toolbar that shows up.

When inserting or editing a link to another (internal or external) page, you can provide the following settings:

• URL: The address of the page to navigate to. If left empty, the option <top> and <bottom> are available
• Text to display: The text that is shown in the text, represented as a link
• Title: The text shown when hovering over the link
• Open link in...: The page can either be opened in the Current Window or a New window

### Insert / Edit Multimedia

To insert existing audio or videos clips, the TinyMCE editor supports Moodle standard Media embedding interface.

### Record audio and video

TinyMCE lets users record audio and video clips which will attach to the text once recorded. Each recording comprises of three steps:

1. Start recording: when ready, press the Start recording button
2. Stop recording: when completed, press the Stop recording button
3. Review recording: you can listen to or watch the recording via the provided controls. Either attach the clip to your text or record it again.

The maximum length and quality (bitrate) can be configured at admin level.

### Insert / Edit code sample

The Tiny editor lets you insert and embed syntax color highlighted code snippets into the editable area.

While you can select the (programming) language at the top, it doesn't have any impact on the way the code is displayed.

Tiny also supports formatting of code elements (Format -> Code), which changes the selected text to the internally defined code style.

### Insert Table

Tiny comes with comprehensive table management functionality to handle grid-like structures in your text. In addition to the Insert table menu item, an entire main menu has been dedicated to tables.

Once a table has been added, you can customise individual cells, row, columns, and the properties of the entire table. The following self-explanatory menu items are available, all supporting standard HTML table options:

• Cell
• Cell properties
• Merge cells
• Split cells
• Row
• Insert row before
• Insert row after
• Delete row
• Row properties
• Cut row
• Copy row
• Paste row before
• Paste row after
• Column
• Insert column before
• Insert column after
• Delete column
• Cut column
• Copy column
• Paste column before
• Paste column after
• Table properties
• Delete table

The table editor also shows context-sensitive menus when editing different table elements.

### Insert special character

The special character picker lets you insert letters and symbols (a map of special unicode characters) that are difficult or impossible to access via your keyboard. You can either search by keyword and / or browse categories.

### Insert Emojis

Bring a smiley to your content: The emoji picker lets you insert pictograms. You can either search by keyword and / or browse categories.

### Insert HTML elements

The following 4 HTML elements are supported by TinyMCE via menus:

• Insert page break: Adds a page break (<p>) to your text.
• Insert nonbreaking space: Add an nonbreaking space (&nbsp;) at the current cursor location.
• Insert anchor: Insert anchors (sometimes referred to as a bookmarks) to your text. Users will be prompted via a dialog box to enter a string. The string will be inserted into the HTML as an anchor id at the location of the cursor. For example, a user places their cursor at the beginning of "Moodle" and clicks on the anchor button and enters "start" in the dialog box. The resulting HTML will take the form of <p><a id="start"></a>Moodle</p>.

### Insert date/time

The Insert date/time options lets you easily insert the current date and/or time into the editable area at the cursor insertion point.

The available format options depend on the selected language.

### Equation editor

If either the MathJax or the TeX filters are enabled (in Site administration > Plugins > Filters > Manage filters) then the Insert equation option is provided in the TinyMCE editor for launching the equation editor.

Internally, the equation editor uses the TeX notation which can either be entered manually and / or interactively. The interactive elements are grouped into 4 categories (Operators, Arrows, Greek symbols, and Advanced). The content of each tab can be configured via the Equation editor settings.

At the bottom of the editor, a preview is shown.

### Configure H5P content

You can embed H5P content via the Configure H5P content menu as follows:

1. Browse the Content bank repository and select an H5P file
2. Choose to either make a copy of the file or create a shortcut
4. Click the button 'Select this file'
5. Click 'Insert H5P'These steps will automatically enter the internal address in the H5P URL field. Alternatively, you can enter any internal or external H5P URL manually.

Note: If you create a shortcut to the file, you can edit it in the Content bank and any activities with a link to the file will be updated.

## Tiny tools

The following tools are available in vie the Tools menu:

### View source code

The source code pop up window displays the code of the page, usually HTML or JS. The code can be modified in plain text; once the window is closed, any changes will be reflected in the WYSIWYG mode.

### Word count

The word pop up windows displays the number of words and the number of characters (with and without spaces) of the entire document and the selected text, respectively.

The number of words are also shown in the editor's footer.

### Accessibility checker

The automated accessibility checker checks for some common errors in the text. These are usually elements in the way the text is constructed that can prevent all users from having equal access to information and functionality. The list of problems that the accessibility checker looks for is:

• Images with missing or empty alt text (unless they have the presentation role)
• Contrast of font colour and background colour meets WCAG AA guidelines
• Long blocks of text are sufficiently broken up into headings
• All tables require captions
• Tables should not contain merged cells as they are difficult to navigate with screen readers
• All tables should contain row or column headers

### Media Manager

The media manager shows all media files that have been embedded in the text.

The top part of the media manager shows the familiar file management element where you can add, download, and delete attached files.

Files that have been attached and deleted again are shown at the bottom half of the screen.

## Keyboard shortcuts

The following keyboard shortcuts will work in the Tiny text editor in most browsers. Note that for many of these commands to work you need to either click in the text editor or select content in the text editor.

### Editor shortcuts

Windows Command Mac Command Function
Ctrl + Shift + f ⌘ + Shift + f Full screen toggle
Ctrl + c ⌘ + c Copy
Ctrl + v ⌘ + v Paste
Ctrl + Shift + v ⌘ + Shift + v Paste without formatting (very useful)
Ctrl + x ⌘ + x Cut
Ctrl + z ⌘ + z Undo
Ctrl + y ⌘ + y Redo
Ctrl + a ⌘ + a Select all
Ctrl + f ⌘ + f Find and replace
F3 F3 Find next
Shift + F3 Shift + F3 Find previous
Ctrl + b ⌘ + b Bold
Ctrl + i ⌘ + i Italics
Ctrl + u ⌘ + u Underline
Ctrl + k ⌘ + k Insert/edit link
Ctrl + Right arrow Option + Right arrow Move to the end of the next word
Ctrl + Left arrow Option + Left arrow Move to the end of the previous word
Ctrl + Shift + Right arrow Shift + Option + Right arrow Select the next word or letter
Ctrl + Shift + Left arrow Shift + Option + Left arrow Select the previous word or letter
Ctrl + Shift + Home ⌘ + Shift + Home Select from the cursor to the beginning of the page
Ctrl + Shift + End ⌘ + Shift + End Select from the cursor to the end of the page
Ctrl + Home ⌘ + Up arrow Move to the beginning of the page
Ctrl + End ⌘ + Down arrow Move to the end of the page
Ctrl + Backspace ⌘ + Backspace Delete word or letter to the left
Ctrl + Delete ⌘ + Delete Delete word or letter to the right
Ctrl + P ⌘ + P Print
Alt+Shift+7 Ctrl+Option+7 Paragraph
Alt+Shift+8 Ctrl+Option+8 Div
Alt+0 Option+0 Help dialogue (list of shortcuts)
Ctrl and + ⌘ and + Zoom in (not specific to the editor, but very useful)
Ctrl and - ⌘ and - Zoom out (not specific to the editor, but very useful)
Ctrl and 0 ⌘ and 0 Reset zoom (not specific to the editor, but very useful)
Double-click Double-click Select word
Triple-click Triple-click Select line

The sections of the outer UI of the editor - the menubar, toolbar, sidebar and footer - are all keyboard navigable.

There are multiple ways to activate keyboard navigation:

• Focus the menubar: Alt + F9 (Windows) or ⌥F9 (MacOS)
• Focus the toolbar: Alt + F10 (Windows) or ⌥F10 (MacOS)
• Focus the footer: Alt + F11 (Windows) or ⌥F11 (MacOS)

Focusing the menubar or toolbar will start keyboard navigation at the first item in the menubar or toolbar, which will be highlighted with a gray background. Focusing the footer will start keyboard navigation at the first item in the element path, which will be highlighted with an underline.

#### Moving between UI sections

When keyboard navigation is active, pressing tab will move the focus to the next major section of the UI, where applicable. These sections are:

• each group of the toolbar
• the sidebar
• the element path in the footer
• the wordcount toggle button in the footer
• the branding link in the footer
• the editor resize handle in the footer

Pressing shift + tab will move backwards through the same sections, except when moving from the footer to the toolbar. Focusing the element path then pressing shift + tab will move focus to the first toolbar group, not the last.

#### Moving within UI sections

Keyboard navigation within UI sections can usually be achieved using the left and right arrow keys. This includes:

• moving between buttons in a toolbar group
• moving between items in the element path

In all these UI sections, keyboard navigation will cycle within the section. For example, focusing the last button in a toolbar group then pressing right arrow will move focus to the first item in the same toolbar group.

#### Executing buttons

To execute a button, navigate the selection to the desired button and hit space or enter.

#### Opening, navigating and closing menus

When focusing a menubar button or a toolbar button with a menu, pressing space, enter or down arrow will open the menu. When the menu opens the first item will be selected. To move up or down the menu, press the up or down arrow key respectively. This is the same for submenus, which can also be opened and closed using the left and right arrow keys.

To close any active menu, hit the escape key. When a menu is closed the selection will be restored to its previous selection. This also works for closing submenus.

To focus an open context toolbar such as the table context toolbar, press Ctrl + F9 (Windows) or ⌃F9 (MacOS).

There are two types of dialog UIs in TinyMCE: tabbed dialogs and non-tabbed dialogs.

When a non-tabbed dialog is opened, the first interactive component in the dialog will be focused. Users can navigate between interactive components by pressing tab. This includes any footer buttons. Navigation will cycle back to the first dialog component if tab is pressed while focusing the last component in the dialog. Pressing shift + tab will navigate backwards.

When a tabbed dialog is opened, the first button in the tab menu is focused. Pressing tab will navigate to the first interactive component in that tab, and will cycle through the tab’s components, the footer buttons, then back to the tab button. To switch to another tab, focus the tab button for the current tab, then use the arrow keys to cycle through the tab buttons.

#### Accessibility shortcuts

This is a list of available keyboard shortcuts within the editor user interface.

Windows Command Mac Command Function
Enter / Spacebar Enter / Spacebar Execute command
Tab Tab Focus on next UI Element(such as: Menu bar, Toolbar, Toolbar Group, Status Bar Item)
Shift+Tab Shift+Tab Focus on previous UI Element(such as: Menu bar, Toolbar, Toolbar Group, Status Bar Item)
Right Arrow / Down Arrow Right Arrow / Down Arrow Focus next Control(such as: toolbar button, menu, or menu item)
Left Arrow / Up Arrow Left Arrow / Up Arrow Focus previous Control(such as: toolbar button, menu, or menu item)
Down Arrow / Spacebar Down Arrow / Spacebar Open menu or toolbar menu button
Spacebar Spacebar Open group toolbar button
Down Arrow Down Arrow Open split toolbar button
Shift+Enter Shift+Enter Open the popup menu on split toolbar buttons
Right Arrow Right Arrow Open submenu
Left Arrow / Esc Left Arrow / Esc Close submenu
Esc Esc Close dialog
Esc Esc Move focus back to editor body

Note: Browsers and Screen Readers provide additional shortcuts within the editor context.

### Equation editor settings

The equation editor has 4 tabs: Operators, Arrows, Greek symbols, and Advanced. The commands that are available on each tab and their order can be configured in Site administration > Plugins > Text editors > TinyMCE editor > Equation editor settings.

For each group, the list of commands is shown in TeX format.

### Tiny Record RTC plugin for Moodle

Tiny fully supports media recording through. Internally, RecordRTC is utilised, an open source JavaScript library using WebRTC for audio and video recording. To configure its settings, navigate to Site administration > Plugins > Text editors > TinyMCE editor > RecordRTC:

The following options have an impact on server resources, both in terms of bandwidth and disk usage:

• Allowed types: You can specify whether Audio and video recording are supported or Audio only or Video only. There are two capabilities to control access to the TinyMCE buttons: Capabilities/tiny/recordrtc:recordvideo and Capabilities/tiny/recordrtc:recordaudio
• Audio bitrate and Video bitrate: The lower the bitrates, the smaller the file sizes, and vice versa. The default bitrate for recorded audio (128000) should generate files of about 15 KB per minute; the default bitrate for recorded video (2500000) to files of approximately 20 MB per minute.
• Audio time limit in seconds and Video time limit in seconds: The default time limit is 2 minutes for audio and video recording. Again, the longer the maximum recording length, the bigger the resulting files.

Recordings are stored in subdirectories of \$CFG->dataroot>/filedir. Ensure post_max_size and upload_max_filesize are configured in line with your expected maximum recording sizes.

### General settings

The editor shows a small "Power by Tiny" icon in the footer that includes a link to the Tiny editor web site. You can show/hide this icon by enabling/disabling the Tiny branding option.