Difference between revisions of "Installing Moodle"

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'''Don't panic!''' [[Image:F1 35px.png]]
 
'''Don't panic!''' [[Image:F1 35px.png]]
  
This page explains how to install Moodle. Moodle runs on a large number of different configurations which are (mostly) explained in linked pages. Please take the time to find and read the parts that are relevant to you. If you are an expert and/or in a hurry try [[Installation Quickstart]].  
+
This page explains how to install Moodle. Moodle runs on a large number of different configurations which are (mostly) explained in linked pages. Please take the time to find and read the parts that are relevant to you.  
  
Consider reviewing [[Finding and Selecting A Web Host]]. Do you really want to install Moodle yourself?
+
*If you are an expert and/or in a hurry try [[Installation Quickstart]].  
 +
*If you are upgrading from a previous version go to [[Upgrading to Moodle 2.2]]
 +
*If you just want to try Moodle on a standalone machine there are 'one-click' installers for Windows (see [[Complete install packages for Windows]]) and for OSX (see [[Complete Install Packages for Mac OS X]]). These are unsuitable for production servers.
  
 
== Planning ==
 
== Planning ==
 +
A Moodle installation will require planning. This may vary from almost nothing to a serious project. Here are a few things you might want to consider:
 +
 +
* Do you really want to install Moodle yourself at all? See [[Finding and Selecting A Web Host]].
 +
* What skills do you have available to you or are prepared to learn? Administering a secure, stable public web server is a serious undertaking before Moodle even enters the discussion. This documentation assumes that you have (at least) a basic understanding of the platform on which you will be installing Moodle (or are prepared for a learning curve).
 +
* What are your hardware/hosting requirements? Moodle scales easily but, depending on your requirements, you could be looking at anywhere along the spectrum - shared hosting, dedicated virtual host, your own server, your own multiple server setup.
 +
* What software platforms will you use? This may depend on your skills or local policies. You may have a free choice.
 +
* What are your support requirements? Will the free support in the moodle.org forums be sufficient or do you need professional support.
 +
* How will you organise backups?
  
 
== Requirements ==
 
== Requirements ==
  
Moodle is primarily developed in Linux using [[Apache]], [[MySQL]] and [[PHP]] (also sometimes known as the LAMP platform). If in doubt, this is the safest combination. There is good support for PostgreSQL which is recommended for large installations. Core Moodle supports Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server (but optional plugins may not). Moodle is also regularly tested with Windows XP/2000/2003 (Apache & IIS), Solaris 10 (Sparc and x64), Mac OS X and Netware 6 operating systems. Other platforms may work but you are likely to have some problems and/or be on your own for support.
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Moodle is primarily developed in Linux using [[Apache]], [[MySQL]] and [[PHP]] (also sometimes known as the LAMP platform). If in doubt, this is the safest combination (if for no other reason than being the most common). There are other options - see the Software section that follows:
  
 
The basic requirements for Moodle are as follows:
 
The basic requirements for Moodle are as follows:
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=== Hardware ===  
 
=== Hardware ===  
 
* Disk space: 160MB free (min) plus as much as you need to store your materials. 5GB is probably a realistic minimum.  
 
* Disk space: 160MB free (min) plus as much as you need to store your materials. 5GB is probably a realistic minimum.  
* Memory: 256MB (min), 1GB or more is strongly recommended. The general rule of thumb is that Moodle can support 10 to 20 ''concurrent'' users for every 1GB of RAM, but this will vary depending on your specific hardware and software combination and the type of use. 'Concurrent' really means web server processes in memory at the same time (i.e. users interacting with the system within a window of a few seconds). It does NOT mean people 'logged in'.  
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* Backups: at least the same again (at a remote location preferably) as above to keep backups of your site
 +
* Memory: 256MB (min), 1GB or more is strongly recommended. The general rule of thumb is that Moodle can support 10 to 20 ''concurrent'' users for every 1GB of RAM, but this will vary depending on your specific hardware and software combination and the type of use. 'Concurrent' really means web server processes in memory at the same time (i.e. users interacting with the system within a window of a few seconds). It does NOT mean people 'logged in'.
  
 
=== Software ===
 
=== Software ===
* Web server. Primarily [[Apache]] or [[IIS]]. Not fully tested (or supported) but should work are [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lightttpd], [http://nginx.org/ nginx], [http://www.cherokee-project.com/ cherokee], zeus and [http://litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed]. Moodle will refuse to install on any other web server.
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* An operating system (!). Anything that runs the following software; although the choice will most likely depend on the performance you need and the skills you have available. Linux and Windows are the most common choices (and good support is available). If you have a free choice, Linux is generally regarded to be the optimal platform. Moodle is also regularly tested with Windows XP/2000/2003, Solaris 10 (Sparc and x64), Mac OS X and Netware 6 operating systems.
* [PHP] - The minimum version is currently 5.3.2. A number of extensions are required; see the [PHP] page for full details. Installation will halt at the environment check if any of the required extensions are missing.
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* Web server. Primarily [[Apache]] or [[IIS]]. Not fully tested (or supported) but should work are [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lightttpd], [http://nginx.org/ nginx], [http://www.cherokee-project.com/ cherokee], zeus and [http://litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed]. Moodle will refuse to install on any other web server. Your web server needs to be correctly configured to serve PHP files.
 
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* [[PHP]] - The minimum version is currently 5.3.2. A number of extensions are required; see the [[PHP]] page for full details. Installation will halt at the environment check if any of the required extensions are missing.
Moodle is written in the PHP scripting language. Currently, Moodle v 1.9.x requires a minimum of PHP v4.3.0 to run. Moodle 2.0 needs PHP v 5.2.8. Moodle 2.1 needs PHP v 5.3.x. There have been some issues with deprecated tags in PHP v 5.3.0 which have a negative impact on a number of PHP Apps, Moodle not exempted, so please ensure your PHP version is later than v 5.3.2 if using a v5.3.x.  There has also been reported some issues installing Moodle with [http://www.php-accelerator.co.uk PHP-Accelerator]. See the PHP Moodle version requirements here [[PHP settings by Moodle version]] for more information.
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* A database. MySQL and PostgreSQL are the primary development database, the most comprehensively tested and have extensive documentation and support. Oracle and MSSQL are fully supported (but may never have been tested for optional plugins) but documentation and support is limited. SQLite support is experimental. If in doubt use MySQL (more documentation) or PostgreSQL (better stability/performance). You will need the appropriate PHP extension (configured if need be) for your chosen database.
 +
** [[MySQL]] - minimum version 5.0.25
 +
** [[PostgreSQL]] - minimum version 8.3
 +
** [[MSSQL]] - minimum version 9.0
 +
** [[Oracle]] - minimum version 10.2
 +
** [[SQLite]] - minimum version 2.0
  
Moodle will use MySQL, MSSQL, PostgreSQL or Oracle as a database, but no others. There is some real issues in the interoperability interface of different databases, which complicates the whole issue. For version information, you can go to the [http://download.moodle.org/ Download page] and that will describe version requirements for available packages. 
+
==== Client ====
 
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* Your clients/users access Moodle from a web browser on their PC/tablet/notepad. Any modern browser should work (but Internet Explorer version 6 and earlier are NOT supported). The operating system is not important but you may need software to read files that you upload (e.g. if you upload Microsoft Word files then all your users need software to read Word files)
If you want to run Moodle on your own computer, please see [[Installing Apache, MySQL and PHP]] for step-by-step instructions for installation on most popular platforms.
 
  
 
=== Also read.... ===
 
=== Also read.... ===
  
Especially if you are planning a large or complex installation, read [[Performance]] and [[User site capacities]]
+
Especially if you are planning a large or complex installation, read [[Performance]] and (in particular) the [[Performance FAQ]] to understand some common terms and concerns.
If in doubt, this is the safest combination.
 
  
== Download and copy files into place ==
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== Set up your server ==
  
There are two ways to get Moodle, either as a compressed package from http://download.moodle.org/ or via [[CVS for Administrators|CVS]].
+
...or desktop computer, if you are just evaluating Moodle. There are lots of possibilities for installing the basic server software depending on your particular choices. Some links and pointers are at [[Installing AMP]]
  
After downloading and unpacking the archive, or checking out the files via CVS, you will be left with a directory called "moodle", containing a number of files and folders.
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== Download and copy files into place ==
  
For the standard package, you can either place the whole folder in your web server documents directory, in which case the site will be located at '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com/moodle</nowiki>''', or you can copy all the contents straight into the main web server documents directory, in which case the site will be simply '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com</nowiki>'''.
+
'''IMPORTANT: While there are now a number of places you can get the Moodle code, you are strongly advised to obtain Moodle from moodle.org. If you run into problems it will be a great deal easier to support you.'''
  
:''Tip:'' If you are downloading Moodle to your local computer and then uploading it to your web site, it is usually better to upload the whole archive as one file, and then do the unpacking on the server. Even web hosting interfaces like cPanel allow you to uncompress archives in the "File Manager".
+
You have two basic options:
 +
* Download your required version from http://moodle.org/downloads and unzip/unpack... OR
 +
* Pull the code from the Git repository (recommended for developers and also makes upgrading very simple):
 +
<pre>
 +
$ git clone -b MOODLE_21_STABLE git://git.moodle.org/moodle.git
 +
</pre>
 +
...this fetches a complete copy of the Moodle repository and then switches to the 2.1 Stable branch (latest weekly build). For a fuller discussion see [[Git for Administrators]].  
  
If you're interested, [[Moodle site moodle directory]] gives a quick summary of the contents of the Moodle folder, to help get you oriented.
+
Either of the above should result in a directory called '''moodle''', containing a number of files and folders.  
  
:''NOTE:'' The "connectionless" nature of the Internet, HTML and server-side file generation allows you to simply copy over critical files without having to uninstall then reinstall. When you do this, go to the Administration > Notifications page to see if any change has been properly registered within Moodle. Time your upgrades to periods of minimal activity, safer that way.
+
You can either place the whole folder in your web server documents directory, in which case the site will be located at '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com/moodle</nowiki>''', or you can copy all the contents straight into the main web server documents directory, in which case the site will be simply '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com</nowiki>'''. See the documentation for your system and/or web server if you are unsure.  
  
 +
:''Tip:'' If you are downloading Moodle to your local computer and then uploading it to your hosted web site, if possible upload the compressed file and decompress at the remote end (check your 'file manager'). Failing that, watch FTP progress carefully for errors or missed files.
  
 +
* '''Secure the Moodle files:''' It is vital that the files are not writeable by the web server user. For example, on Unix/Linux (as root):
 +
<pre>
 +
# chown -R root /path/to/moodle
 +
# chmod -R 0755 /path/to/moodle
 +
</pre>
 +
(files are owned by the administrator/superuser and are only writeable by them - readable by everyone else)
  
== Setting-up your web server ==
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== Create an empty database ==
You need to create a blank '''database''' for Moodle to use and finally create a '''directory''' on your hard disk for Moodle to save your materials and other files you upload into your courses before you can start the installation process.
 
  
=== Create empty database ===
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Next create a new, empty database for your installation. You need to find and make a note of following information for use during the final installation stage:
 +
* '''dbhost''' - the database server hostname. Probably ''localhost'' if the database and web server are the same machine, otherwise the name of the database server
 +
* '''dbname''' - the database name. Whatever you called it, e.g. ''moodle''
 +
* '''dbuser''' - the username for the database. Whatever you assigned, e.g. ''moodleuser'' - do not use the root/superuser account. Create a proper account with the minimum permissions needed.
 +
* '''dbpass''' - the password for the above user
  
You need to create an empty database (eg "''moodle''") in your database system along with a special user (for example "moodleuser") that has access to that database (and that database only). You could use the "root" user if you wanted to for a test server, but this is not recommended for a production system: if hackers manage to discover the password then your whole database system would be at risk, rather than just one database.
+
If your site is hosted you should find a web-based administration page for databases as part of the control panel (or ask your administrator). For everyone else or for detailed instructions, see the page for your chosen database server:
 +
* [[MySQL]]
 +
* [[PostgreSQL]]
 +
* [[MSSQL]]
 +
* [[Oracle]]
  
For more help with this see [[Create Moodle site database]].
+
== Create the (''moodledata'') data directory  ==
  
If you are using a webhost, they will probably have a control panel web interface for you to create your database.
+
Moodle requires a directory to store all of its files (all your site's uploaded files, temporary data, session data etc.). The web server needs to be able to write to this directory. On larger systems consider how much free space you are going to use when allocating this directory.  
  
The '''[http://www.cpanel.com/ cPanel]''' system is one of the most popular of these.  
+
'''IMPORTANT:''' This directory must '''NOT''' be accessible directly via the web. This would be a serious security hole. Do not try to place it inside your web root or inside your Moodle program files directory. Moodle will not install. It can go anywhere else convenient.
To create a database using cPanel:
 
  
# Click on the '''MySQL Databases''' icon.
+
Here is an example (Unix/Linux) of creating the directory and setting the permissions for '''anyone''' on the server to write here. This is only appropriate for Moodle servers that are not shared. Discuss this with your server administrator for other scenarios...
# Type '''moodle''' in the New Database field and click '''Create Database'''.
+
<pre>
# Type a ''username'' and ''password'' (not one you use elsewhere) in the respective fields and click '''Create  User'''.<br>Note that the ''username'' and ''database'' names may be prefixed by your cPanel account name and an underscore, and truncated to 16 characters. When entering this information into the Moodle installer - use the full names.
+
# mkdir /path/to/moodledata
# Now use the '''Add Users to Databases''' button and give this new user account '''ALL''' rights to the new database.
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# chmod 0777 /path/to/moodledata
 +
</pre>
  
=== Create the data directory ===
+
==== Securing moodledata in a web directory ====
  
Moodle will also need some space on your server's hard disk to store uploaded files, such as course documents and user pictures. The Moodle installer tries hard to create the '''moodledata''' directory for you but if it fails then you will have to create a directory for this purpose manually.
+
If you are using a hosted site and you have no option but to place 'moodledata' in a web accessible directory. You may be able to secure it by creating an .htaccess file in the 'moodledata' directory. This does not work on all systems - see your host/administrator. Create a file called .htaccess containing only the following lines:
 
+
<pre>
<table style=background-color:lightCyan border=1 cellpadding=5 cellspacing=0 ><tr><td>
+
order deny,allow
'''Security warning''': For security purposes, it is '''CRITICAL''' that this directory is '''NOT''' accessible directly via the web. The easiest way to do this is to simply locate it OUTSIDE the web site root directory (it is the folder that the main part of your URL -that is, the part up to the first single / - points to; for example, in <nowiki>http://your.domain.com/moodle/admin/cron.php</nowiki>, it is <nowiki>http://your.domain.com/</nowiki>).
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deny from all
 
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</pre>
'''If you don't protect the data directory from direct web access, anybody will be able to impersonate any user of your Moodle site (including the admin user!!!), and all of your course materials will be available to the web at large.'''
 
</table>
 
 
 
See [[Creating Moodle site data directory]] for more information about security in creating a data directory in CPanel in webhosts.
 
 
 
=== Troubleshooting ===
 
 
 
If you run into problems when installing Moodle you might have to tweak some of the settings for your Apache server or your PHP installation.
 
 
 
* [[Installing Moodle/httpd.conf setup]]
 
* [[Installing Moodle/Creating custom php.ini files]] for details.
 
* '''Alternative to ''php.ini'' and ''httpd.conf'' files''': If you do not have access to your php.ini or httpd.conf files on you web host, see [[Create .htaccess file]].
 
* Warning: as noted at http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=124441&parent=550026 some Moodle installers such as Ubuntu populate an Apache conf.d file with php directives.  Before trying to change any php directives make sure that no php directives are set in any apache conf file,  including files in /etc/apache2/conf.d or similar directory.
 
  
 
== Start Moodle install ==
 
== Start Moodle install ==
There are two basic ways to install Moodle:  Most Moodlers are used to the installer script but with Moodle 2.0 you may install it from the command line.
+
It's now time to run the installer to create the database tables and configure your new site. The recommended method is to use the command line installer. If you cannot do this for any reason (e.g. on a Windows server) the web based installer is still available.
 
 
=== Install with installer script ===
 
 
 
To run the installer script (install.php), just try to access your Moodle main URL using a web browser, or access '''<nowiki>http://yourserver/install.php</nowiki>''' directly.
 
 
 
(The Installer will try to set a session cookie. If you get a popup warning in your browser make sure you accept that cookie!)
 
 
 
Moodle will detect that configuration is necessary and will lead you through some screens to help you create a new configuration file called '''config.php'''. At the end of the process Moodle will try and write the file into the right location, otherwise you can press a button to download it from the installer and then upload '''config.php''' into the main Moodle directory on the server.
 
 
 
Along the way the installer will test your server environment and give you suggestions about how to fix any problems. For most common issues these suggestions should be sufficient, but if you get stuck, check in the Installation Forum for more help.
 
 
 
==== Go to the admin page to continue configuration ====
 
 
 
Once the basic config.php has been correctly created in the previous step, trying to access the front page of your site will take you to the "admin" page for the rest of the configuration.
 
 
 
The first time you access this admin page, you will be presented with a GPL "shrink wrap" agreement with which you must agree before you can continue with the setup.
 
 
 
Now Moodle will start setting up your database and creating tables to store data. First, the main database tables are created. You should see a number of SQL statements followed by status messages.  You should see  <font color="green">SUCCESS</font> next to each one until you see "<font color="green">Main databases set up successfully</font>."
 
 
 
:''Tip:'' If you don't see these, then there must have been some problem with the database or the configuration settings you defined in config.php. Please see [[Install Moodle with installer script]] for more details and issues.  
 
 
 
Scroll down the very bottom of the page and press the "Continue" link.
 
 
 
You should now see a form where you can define more configuration variables for your installation, such as the default language, SMTP hosts and so on. Don't worry too much about getting everything right just now - you can always come back and edit these later on using the admin interface. The defaults are designed to be useful and secure for most sites. Scroll down to the bottom and click "Save changes".
 
 
 
Next you will see more pages that print lots of status messages as they set up all the tables required by the various Moodle module. As before, they should all be <font color="green">green</font>.
 
 
 
Scroll down the very bottom of the page and press the "Continue" link.
 
 
 
The next page is a form where you can define parameters for your Moodle site and the front page, such as the name, format, description and so on. Fill this out (you can always come back and change these later) and then press "Save changes".
 
  
Finally, you will then be asked to create a top-level administration user for future access to the admin pages. Fill out the details with your own name, email etc and then click "Save changes". Not all the fields are required, but if you miss any important fields you'll be re-prompted for them. You can change this information later via the [[User profile]].
+
=== Command line installer ===
  
'''Make sure you remember the username and password you chose for the administration user account, as they will be necessary to access the administration page in future.'''
+
It's best to run the command line installer as your system's web user. You need to know what that is - see your system's documentation (e.g. Ubuntu/Debian is 'www-data', Centos is 'apache')
  
:''TIP:'' If for any reason your install is interrupted, or there is a system error of some kind that prevents you from logging in using the admin account, you can usually log in using the default username of "'''admin'''", with password "'''admin'''".)
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* Example of using the command-line installer (as root - substitute 'www-data' for your web user):
 +
<pre>
 +
# chown www-data /path/to/moodle
 +
# cd /path/to/moodle/admin/cli
 +
# sudo -u www-data /usr/bin/php install.php
 +
# chown -R root /path/to/moodle
 +
</pre>
 +
The chowns allow the script to write a new config.php file. More information about the options can be found using  
 +
<pre>
 +
# php install.php --help
 +
</pre>
  
Once successful, you will be sent to the home page of your new site! Please note the [[Site administration block]] on the left with links. These items are only visible to you because you are logged in as the admin user. All your further administration of Moodle can now be done using this block.
+
You will be asked for other settings that have not been discussed on this page - if unsure just accept the defaults. For a full discussion see [[Administration via command line]]
  
=== Installing Moodle using command line ===
+
=== Web based installer ===
 +
To run the web installer script, just go to your Moodle's main URL using a web browser.
  
[[Installing Moodle using command line]] is recommended only for experienced server administrators. Please note you have to execute the installation script as the same user used for apache. Command line installation is not compatible with Windows platforms.
+
The installation process will take you through a number of pages. You should be asked to confirm the copyright, see the database tables being created, supply administrator account details and supply the site details. The database creation can take some time - please be patient. You should eventually end up at the Moodle front page with an invitation to create a new Course.  
  
$cd /var/www/html/moodle/admin/cli
+
It is very likely that you will be asked to download the new config.php file and upload it to your Moodle installation - just follow the on-screen instructions.
  
More information about the options can be found using
+
==Final configuration==
$sudo -u wwwrun /usr/bin/php install.php --help
 
  
==Last tasks==
+
=== Settings within Moodle ===
 +
There are a number of options within the Moodle Site Administration screens (accessible from the 'Site administration' tab in the 'Settings' block. Here are a few of the more important ones that you will probably want to check:
 +
* ''Settings > Site administration > Server > Email'': Set your smtp server and authentication if required (so your Moodle site can send emails). The support contact for your site is also set on this page.
 +
* ''Settings > Site administration > Server > Systen paths'': Set the paths to du, dot and aspell binaries.
 +
* ''Settings > Site administration > Server > HTTP'': If you are behind a firewall you may need to set your proxy credentials in the 'Web proxy' section.
 +
* ''Settings > Site administration > Location > Update timezones'': Run this to make sure your timezone information is up to date.
  
=== Set up cron ===
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=== Remaining tasks ===
  
Moodle's background tasks (e.g. sending out forum emails and performing course backups) are performed by a script which you can set to execute at specific times of the day. This is known as a cron script. Please refer to the [[Cron|Cron instructions]].
+
* '''Configure Cron''': Moodle's background tasks (e.g. sending out forum emails and performing course backups) are performed by a script which you can set to execute at specific times of the day. This is known as a cron script. Please refer to the [[Cron|Cron instructions]].
 +
* '''Set up backups''': See [[Site backup]] and [[Automated course backup]].
 +
* '''Check mail works''': Create a [[Manual_accounts|test user]] with a valid email address and [[message|send them a message]]. Do they receive an email copy of the message? If not then your email server and/or Moodle email settings may be misconfigured (see [[Email_processing|Email Processing]] for details).
 +
* '''Secure your Moodle site''': Read the information on [[Security]].
  
=== Set up backups ===
+
=== Installation is complete :) ===
  
Please refer to the [[Automated course backup|backup instructions]].
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* Create a new course: You can now [[Adding/editing a course|create a new course]] and have a play ;-)
  
=== Send a test email ===
+
=== If something goes wrong... ===
  
Create a [[Manual_accounts|test user]] with a valid email address and [[message|send them a message]]. Do they receive an email copy of the message? If not then your email server and/or Moodle email settings may be misconfigured (see [[Email_processing|Email Processing]] for details.
+
Here are some things you should try...
  
===Create a new course===
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* Check the [[Installation FAQ]]
 +
* Check your file permissions carefully. Can your web server read (but not write) the Moodle program files? Can your web server read and write your Moodle data directory?
 +
* Check your database permissions. Have you set up your database user with the correct rights and permissions for your configuration (especially if the web server and database server are different machines)?
 +
* If you are having trouble creating a config.php file, you can do it manually by copying config-dist.php (in the root of the Moodle program directory) to config.php, editing it and setting your database/site options there. Installation will continue from the right place.
 +
* Once you have a config.php (see previous tip) you can edit it to turn on debugging (in section 8). This may give you extra information to help track down a problem. If you have access, check your web server error log(s).
 +
* Re-check your php.ini / .htaccess settings. Are they appropriate (e.g. memory_limit), did you edit the correct php.ini / .htaccess file and (if required) did you re-start the web server after making changes?
 +
* Did you include any non-core (optional) plugins, themes or other code before starting the installation script? If so, remove it and try again (it may be broken or incompatible).
 +
* Explain your problem in the [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/view.php?id=28 Installation problems forum]. '''PLEASE''' list your software versions; explain what you did, what happened and what error messages you saw (if any); explain what you tried. There is no such thing as 'nothing', even a blank page is something!
  
Congratulations on setting up your Moodle site! You can now [[Adding/editing a course|create a new course]] and have a play ;-)
+
== Platform specific instructions ==
  
===Install Moodle with just one-click===
+
'''Note:''' Much of this information is provided by the community. It may not have been checked and may be out of date. Please read in conjunction with the above installation instructions.
  
You can skip the installation procedure and install moodle with just one click on your local host through AMPPS.
+
* [[Windows installation]]
http://www.ampps.com/apps/php/educational/Moodle
+
* [[Unix or Linux Installation]]
 +
* [[Mac Installation]]
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
* [[Complete install packages]]
 
 
* Using Moodle [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/view.php?id=28 Installation problems forum]
 
* Using Moodle [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/view.php?id=28 Installation problems forum]
 
* [[Installing Apache, MySQL and PHP]]
 
* [[Installing Apache, MySQL and PHP]]
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[[ru:Установка Moodle]]
 
[[ru:Установка Moodle]]
 
[[zh:安装Moodle]]
 
[[zh:安装Moodle]]
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{{Review}}

Revision as of 11:11, 3 January 2012


This and other installation pages are being updated. Please bear with us while this work is being completed

Don't panic! F1 35px.png

This page explains how to install Moodle. Moodle runs on a large number of different configurations which are (mostly) explained in linked pages. Please take the time to find and read the parts that are relevant to you.

Planning

A Moodle installation will require planning. This may vary from almost nothing to a serious project. Here are a few things you might want to consider:

  • Do you really want to install Moodle yourself at all? See Finding and Selecting A Web Host.
  • What skills do you have available to you or are prepared to learn? Administering a secure, stable public web server is a serious undertaking before Moodle even enters the discussion. This documentation assumes that you have (at least) a basic understanding of the platform on which you will be installing Moodle (or are prepared for a learning curve).
  • What are your hardware/hosting requirements? Moodle scales easily but, depending on your requirements, you could be looking at anywhere along the spectrum - shared hosting, dedicated virtual host, your own server, your own multiple server setup.
  • What software platforms will you use? This may depend on your skills or local policies. You may have a free choice.
  • What are your support requirements? Will the free support in the moodle.org forums be sufficient or do you need professional support.
  • How will you organise backups?

Requirements

Moodle is primarily developed in Linux using Apache, MySQL and PHP (also sometimes known as the LAMP platform). If in doubt, this is the safest combination (if for no other reason than being the most common). There are other options - see the Software section that follows:

The basic requirements for Moodle are as follows:

Hardware

  • Disk space: 160MB free (min) plus as much as you need to store your materials. 5GB is probably a realistic minimum.
  • Backups: at least the same again (at a remote location preferably) as above to keep backups of your site
  • Memory: 256MB (min), 1GB or more is strongly recommended. The general rule of thumb is that Moodle can support 10 to 20 concurrent users for every 1GB of RAM, but this will vary depending on your specific hardware and software combination and the type of use. 'Concurrent' really means web server processes in memory at the same time (i.e. users interacting with the system within a window of a few seconds). It does NOT mean people 'logged in'.

Software

  • An operating system (!). Anything that runs the following software; although the choice will most likely depend on the performance you need and the skills you have available. Linux and Windows are the most common choices (and good support is available). If you have a free choice, Linux is generally regarded to be the optimal platform. Moodle is also regularly tested with Windows XP/2000/2003, Solaris 10 (Sparc and x64), Mac OS X and Netware 6 operating systems.
  • Web server. Primarily Apache or IIS. Not fully tested (or supported) but should work are lightttpd, nginx, cherokee, zeus and LiteSpeed. Moodle will refuse to install on any other web server. Your web server needs to be correctly configured to serve PHP files.
  • PHP - The minimum version is currently 5.3.2. A number of extensions are required; see the PHP page for full details. Installation will halt at the environment check if any of the required extensions are missing.
  • A database. MySQL and PostgreSQL are the primary development database, the most comprehensively tested and have extensive documentation and support. Oracle and MSSQL are fully supported (but may never have been tested for optional plugins) but documentation and support is limited. SQLite support is experimental. If in doubt use MySQL (more documentation) or PostgreSQL (better stability/performance). You will need the appropriate PHP extension (configured if need be) for your chosen database.

Client

  • Your clients/users access Moodle from a web browser on their PC/tablet/notepad. Any modern browser should work (but Internet Explorer version 6 and earlier are NOT supported). The operating system is not important but you may need software to read files that you upload (e.g. if you upload Microsoft Word files then all your users need software to read Word files)

Also read....

Especially if you are planning a large or complex installation, read Performance and (in particular) the Performance FAQ to understand some common terms and concerns.

Set up your server

...or desktop computer, if you are just evaluating Moodle. There are lots of possibilities for installing the basic server software depending on your particular choices. Some links and pointers are at Installing AMP

Download and copy files into place

IMPORTANT: While there are now a number of places you can get the Moodle code, you are strongly advised to obtain Moodle from moodle.org. If you run into problems it will be a great deal easier to support you.

You have two basic options:

  • Download your required version from http://moodle.org/downloads and unzip/unpack... OR
  • Pull the code from the Git repository (recommended for developers and also makes upgrading very simple):
$ git clone -b MOODLE_21_STABLE git://git.moodle.org/moodle.git 

...this fetches a complete copy of the Moodle repository and then switches to the 2.1 Stable branch (latest weekly build). For a fuller discussion see Git for Administrators.

Either of the above should result in a directory called moodle, containing a number of files and folders.

You can either place the whole folder in your web server documents directory, in which case the site will be located at http://yourwebserver.com/moodle, or you can copy all the contents straight into the main web server documents directory, in which case the site will be simply http://yourwebserver.com. See the documentation for your system and/or web server if you are unsure.

Tip: If you are downloading Moodle to your local computer and then uploading it to your hosted web site, if possible upload the compressed file and decompress at the remote end (check your 'file manager'). Failing that, watch FTP progress carefully for errors or missed files.
  • Secure the Moodle files: It is vital that the files are not writeable by the web server user. For example, on Unix/Linux (as root):
# chown -R root /path/to/moodle
# chmod -R 0755 /path/to/moodle

(files are owned by the administrator/superuser and are only writeable by them - readable by everyone else)

Create an empty database

Next create a new, empty database for your installation. You need to find and make a note of following information for use during the final installation stage:

  • dbhost - the database server hostname. Probably localhost if the database and web server are the same machine, otherwise the name of the database server
  • dbname - the database name. Whatever you called it, e.g. moodle
  • dbuser - the username for the database. Whatever you assigned, e.g. moodleuser - do not use the root/superuser account. Create a proper account with the minimum permissions needed.
  • dbpass - the password for the above user

If your site is hosted you should find a web-based administration page for databases as part of the control panel (or ask your administrator). For everyone else or for detailed instructions, see the page for your chosen database server:

Create the (moodledata) data directory

Moodle requires a directory to store all of its files (all your site's uploaded files, temporary data, session data etc.). The web server needs to be able to write to this directory. On larger systems consider how much free space you are going to use when allocating this directory.

IMPORTANT: This directory must NOT be accessible directly via the web. This would be a serious security hole. Do not try to place it inside your web root or inside your Moodle program files directory. Moodle will not install. It can go anywhere else convenient.

Here is an example (Unix/Linux) of creating the directory and setting the permissions for anyone on the server to write here. This is only appropriate for Moodle servers that are not shared. Discuss this with your server administrator for other scenarios...

# mkdir /path/to/moodledata
# chmod 0777 /path/to/moodledata

Securing moodledata in a web directory

If you are using a hosted site and you have no option but to place 'moodledata' in a web accessible directory. You may be able to secure it by creating an .htaccess file in the 'moodledata' directory. This does not work on all systems - see your host/administrator. Create a file called .htaccess containing only the following lines:

order deny,allow
deny from all

Start Moodle install

It's now time to run the installer to create the database tables and configure your new site. The recommended method is to use the command line installer. If you cannot do this for any reason (e.g. on a Windows server) the web based installer is still available.

Command line installer

It's best to run the command line installer as your system's web user. You need to know what that is - see your system's documentation (e.g. Ubuntu/Debian is 'www-data', Centos is 'apache')

  • Example of using the command-line installer (as root - substitute 'www-data' for your web user):
# chown www-data /path/to/moodle
# cd /path/to/moodle/admin/cli
# sudo -u www-data /usr/bin/php install.php
# chown -R root /path/to/moodle

The chowns allow the script to write a new config.php file. More information about the options can be found using

# php install.php --help

You will be asked for other settings that have not been discussed on this page - if unsure just accept the defaults. For a full discussion see Administration via command line

Web based installer

To run the web installer script, just go to your Moodle's main URL using a web browser.

The installation process will take you through a number of pages. You should be asked to confirm the copyright, see the database tables being created, supply administrator account details and supply the site details. The database creation can take some time - please be patient. You should eventually end up at the Moodle front page with an invitation to create a new Course.

It is very likely that you will be asked to download the new config.php file and upload it to your Moodle installation - just follow the on-screen instructions.

Final configuration

Settings within Moodle

There are a number of options within the Moodle Site Administration screens (accessible from the 'Site administration' tab in the 'Settings' block. Here are a few of the more important ones that you will probably want to check:

  • Settings > Site administration > Server > Email: Set your smtp server and authentication if required (so your Moodle site can send emails). The support contact for your site is also set on this page.
  • Settings > Site administration > Server > Systen paths: Set the paths to du, dot and aspell binaries.
  • Settings > Site administration > Server > HTTP: If you are behind a firewall you may need to set your proxy credentials in the 'Web proxy' section.
  • Settings > Site administration > Location > Update timezones: Run this to make sure your timezone information is up to date.

Remaining tasks

  • Configure Cron: Moodle's background tasks (e.g. sending out forum emails and performing course backups) are performed by a script which you can set to execute at specific times of the day. This is known as a cron script. Please refer to the Cron instructions.
  • Set up backups: See Site backup and Automated course backup.
  • Check mail works: Create a test user with a valid email address and send them a message. Do they receive an email copy of the message? If not then your email server and/or Moodle email settings may be misconfigured (see Email Processing for details).
  • Secure your Moodle site: Read the information on Security.

Installation is complete :)

If something goes wrong...

Here are some things you should try...

  • Check the Installation FAQ
  • Check your file permissions carefully. Can your web server read (but not write) the Moodle program files? Can your web server read and write your Moodle data directory?
  • Check your database permissions. Have you set up your database user with the correct rights and permissions for your configuration (especially if the web server and database server are different machines)?
  • If you are having trouble creating a config.php file, you can do it manually by copying config-dist.php (in the root of the Moodle program directory) to config.php, editing it and setting your database/site options there. Installation will continue from the right place.
  • Once you have a config.php (see previous tip) you can edit it to turn on debugging (in section 8). This may give you extra information to help track down a problem. If you have access, check your web server error log(s).
  • Re-check your php.ini / .htaccess settings. Are they appropriate (e.g. memory_limit), did you edit the correct php.ini / .htaccess file and (if required) did you re-start the web server after making changes?
  • Did you include any non-core (optional) plugins, themes or other code before starting the installation script? If so, remove it and try again (it may be broken or incompatible).
  • Explain your problem in the Installation problems forum. PLEASE list your software versions; explain what you did, what happened and what error messages you saw (if any); explain what you tried. There is no such thing as 'nothing', even a blank page is something!

Platform specific instructions

Note: Much of this information is provided by the community. It may not have been checked and may be out of date. Please read in conjunction with the above installation instructions.

See also

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