This article refers to the 'Apache HTTP server'
The Apache HTTP server is the software that (along with the PHP scripting language) 'runs' Moodle. Note that there are alternatives (e.g. IIS on Windows, Nginx on Linux, MacOS) but the Apache HTTP Server is very popular on all platforms.
Installers are available for most platforms from http://httpd.apache.org/download.cgi. The official installation instructions are here: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/install.html. If you are running Linux then you are recommended to use the packaged version if you can. For example in Debian/Ubuntu it is simply:
sudo apt-get install apache2
See the documentation for your particular platform for the instructions. Apache is straightforward to build from source if you have to and the PHP documentation contains an article on building both Apache and PHP together - although you should rarely need to do that.
The function slash arguments is required for various features in Moodle to work correctly, as described in Using slash arguments.
To turn it on, add this line to your httpd.conf, or to a .htaccess file in your local directory:
Note: When using ".htaccess" in your local Moodle install folder, you should include/enable "AllowOverride Directive" in "httpd.conf", first. Also! please note that using .htaccess file will cause performance hit on your server!
If you are using 1and1 as a hosting company the above does not work. The solution is to create a php.ini file in the moodle directory with this content:
cgi.fix_pathinfo = 0
It was a know bug when using PHP as CGI.
Moodle has an option to enable HTTPS for the whole site or for just the login pages; either option requires that your web server is configured for SSL.
- Whole site HTTPS is enabled by changing http://<url> to https:// <url> in your config.php 'wwwroot' parameter.
- Login only HTTPS is enabled by setting the 'loginhttps' parameter, where the wwwroot schema should remain as http://
NOTE: Login only https was deprecated and removed from Moodle 3.4: https://tracker.moodle.org/browse/MDL-42834
Login only https is available in Moodle 3.3 and earlier in the admin interface via Administration>Security>HTTP Security and checking the button. (Note the warning and see ssl section below)
Prior to Moodle 2.3 It was not advised to run the whole site over HTTPS due to legacy restrictions with client-side caching. This is no longer the case assuming client browsers support the 'Cache-Control: public' method, which all supported browsers for this version of Moodle do.
To use HTTPS you will need to obtain an SSL certificate, you have two options:
- Generate a self-signed certificate. This is fine on (say) an Intranet but unsuitable for the public internet, but users will we warned the certificated is untrusted when used publicly.
- Purchase a certificate from a vendor. There is a surprising range of prices and value-added services available. Some hosting companies even provide free certificates.
Debian provides instructions for installing a self-signed certificate on their wiki and includes general information on configuring Apache for SSL. If you purchase a vendor certificate you will normally receive instructions for installing it.
A basic Apache SSL configuration can be summarised as:
Listen 443 NameVirtualHost *:443 <VirtualHost *:443> SSLEngine On SSLCertificateFile /path/to/your/certificate.crt SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/your/certificate.key ... </VirtualHost>