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This question type aims to automatically report of student mistakes in a shortanswer question, when student is learning programming language or in simple cases of natural language learning, when student must write correct string (statement, sentence), and we should give him information about skipping some words or placing words in incorrect order. This also could be useful, when we don't give actual information about what words (or some kinds of symbols) was moved or absent in answer, but their meaning, thus forcing student to know what does this part of symbol means. This allows for some training without direct teacher supervision.
How input is splitted
Teacher should enter one or several correct answers (with possible feedback describing particular answer). These answers are tokenized (this process will be called scanning later) to break them down to smallest meaningful parts (tokens or lexems): words, numbers, punctuation marks, operators etc. These parts depend on the language used.
The question will later analyze and print errors in the placement of these tokens. But when we are telling student, that function name (or a subject) in his answer is misplaced (or absent), we often don't want to disclose to the student information about exact word for that function name or subject. If student will see the word he misplaced, he could just start trying to move it. If the student will see grammatical role of this word (e.g. "function name" or "subject" misplaced), that will stimulate him to think in the grammatical categories (i.e. what is a subject in my response and where it should be?). So the teacher asked to enter grammatical descriptions for each token in the correct answer. That is done as a two-step process.
In answer form, you can enter answer and supply a specific feedback for it:
The answer form changes, to allow you to enter a description for each token (for the answers above hint grader border). You can skip descriptions for some token, just hitting enter, making an empty line in text field, then the student will the literal representation of the token instead:
Than press "Save changes" button again.
Question type settings
When creating new CorrectWriting question type you will see the form with following settings:
The single most important setting therre is an answers language. It defines a way, in which you answer will be breaked down to lexemes (tokens). Other settings are much less important and you may not need to worry about them first. Most of them are used to fine tune question grading and are advanced.
You can see the following parameters:
; Lexical error threshold : a treshold, which will be used when comparing tokens from student response to a teacher answer will be used to match with errors with Levenstein distance. If amount of errors when comparing two tokens is lesser than product of this treshold and length of teacher token - than tokens are the same with errors. Since search for misspellings is not implementend this parameter is unused and hidden in form. ; Penalty for lexical error : a penalty, that will be substracted from grade, when found one misspelling. Since search for misspellings is not implementend this parameter is unused and hidden in form.
- Penalty for missing token
- a penalty, that will be substracted from grade for each absent token in student response.
- Penalty for extra token
- a penalty, that will be substracted from grade for each odd token in student response.
- Penalty for misplaced token
- a penalty, that will be substracted from grade for each misplaced token in student response, that is placed in incorrect order, which is taken from teacher's answer.
- Minimum grade for answer to find and display mistakes
- sometimes, teacher may point out for student some hints for especially bad answers, and their comments must be viewed, when student's and teacher's answers are the same. Teacher can define an answer with grade, lower than that border for this answer and point out some bad answer with custom error message
- Maximum percent of mistakes in students response
- when student writes response with lots of mistakes, we can reject his answer in favor of matching with another teacher's answer, when count of mistakes is bigger than product of this parameter and count of parts in answer.
- Language of answer
- a language, which will be used, when analizing some answer and student response. Currently supported languages are english language and C programming language.
- Hinting settings
- allows to enable particular hints for multi-stage behaviours and setting penalties for their use. See next sections for details about hints.
The CorrectWriting question type uses hinting behaviours and is able to do special hints - for now in adaptive behaviour - for a penalty in the grade (may be set to 0). You could enable them setting penalty for the hint below 1.
- What is hint
- tells student a token text instead of description. I.e. The subject is "cat". Used for misplaced token and absent token mistakes. For absent token mistake the penalty is multiplied to the absent hint penalty factor, since it discloses exact text of the word student omitted.
- Where is text hint
- shows a message where a token should be placed, based on you answer, using descriptions where possible. I.e. The subject should be placed between definite article and verb. Used for misplaced token and absent token mistakes.
- Where is picture hint
- shows an image where a token should be placed, based on you answer, using descriptions where possible. You can see example below, highlighted by a red border.
Example of grading a student response
Please consider the following example, for question, partially described above:
You see the examples of student mistakes. You can toggle various options of quiz, hiding some picture of mistakes or hiding some mistakes sentences for your own purpose.
Installing CorrectWriting question type
To install this question type, you need formal languages block and question type itself. Also you need a poas question type and two hinting behaviours adaptive with hints and no penalties version of adaptive.
Copy all of them in respective places in your Moodle installation folder, overwriting if need to and go to Site administration in web-interface, proceeding with the installation and you're done. Alternatively you could download an entire set on developer's site, which could be unpacked in the root directory of Moodle and place everything to the place it belongs.
Please, consider the following examples.
Function header in C language
Student must write simple function header for function, that is described naturally: void function(int abc, char def), with following descriptions of parts:
- type of returned value
- function name
- bracket (or opening bracket for function arguments)
- first argument type
- first argument name
- argument list separator
- second argument type
- second argument name
- bracket (or closing bracket for function arguments)
If student submits the following answer, like: function(abc, def) void , question type will produce the following output:
- type of returned value is misplaced
- first argument type is missing
- second argument type is missing
English language sentence:
Student must write simple sentence, while learning foreign language: The cat ate the mouse, with following descriptions of parts
- definite article
- definite article
- sentence ending point
If student submits the following answer, like: The cat eat the mouse, question type will produce the following output:
- "eat" should not be in response
- verb is missing
- sententence ending point is missing.