Difference between revisions of "Installing Moodle"

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'''Firstly don't panic! :-)'''
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{{Template:Installing Moodle}}
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''This page explains how to install Moodle. If you are an expert and/or in a hurry try [[Installation Quickstart]].''
  
This guide explains how to install Moodle for the first time. For some of these steps it goes into a lot of detail to try and cover the majority of possible web server setups, so this page may look long and complicated. Don't panic, once you know how to do it you can install Moodle in minutes!
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If you just want to try Moodle on a standalone machine there are 'one-click' installers for Windows (see [[Complete install packages for Windows]]) and for OSX (see [[Complete Install Packages for Mac OS X]]) or [[ install on OS X]]. These are unsuitable for production servers.  
  
If you have problems please read this page carefully - most common issues are answered in here. If you still have trouble, you can seek help from the Moodle community via  [http://moodle.org/course/view.php?id=5 moodle.org Using Moodle].
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== Requirements ==
  
Another option is to contact a [http://moodle.com/hosting/ Moodle Partner providing Moodle hosting] who can completely maintain Moodle for you, so that you can ignore all this and get straight into educating!
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Moodle is primarily developed in Linux using [[Apache]], [[PostgreSQL]]/[[MySQL]]/[[MariaDB]] and [[PHP]] (sometimes known as the LAMP platform). Typically this is also how Moodle is run, although there are other options as long as the software requirements of the  [{{Release notes}} release] are met.
  
If you want to run Moodle on your own computer and this page looks a bit daunting, then please see our guides: [[Installing AMP |Installing Apache, MySQL and PHP(AMP)]] or [[Complete install packages| how to install one of Moodle's complete packages]]. They provide alternative instructions to install all this on most popular platforms.
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If you are installing Moodle in a Windows server, note that from php5.5 onwards, you will also need to have  the Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2012 installed from:
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http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=30679 Visual C++] ( x86 or x64) 
  
==Requirements==
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The basic requirements for Moodle are as follows:
  
Moodle is primarily developed in Linux using [[Apache]], [[MySQL]] and [[PHP]] (also sometimes known as the LAMP platform), but is also regularly tested with Windows XP/2000/2003 (WAMP), Solaris 10 (Sparc and x64), Mac OS X and Netware 6 operating systems. Support for PostgreSQL, Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server is also available.
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=== Hardware ===
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* Disk space: 200MB for the Moodle code, plus as much as you need to store content. 5GB is probably a realistic minimum.
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* Processor: 1GHz (min), 2GHz dual core or more recommended.
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* Memory: 512MB (min), 1GB or more is recommended. 8GB plus is likely on a large production server
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* Consider separate servers for the web "front ends" and the database. It is much easier to "tune"
  
The requirements for Moodle are as follows:
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All the above requirements will vary depending on specific hardware and software combinations as well as the type of use and load; busy sites may well require additional resources. Further guidance can be found under [[Performance_recommendations|performance recommendations]]. Moodle scales easily by increasing hardware.
  
* Hardware (unless you are using a hosted server).
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For very large sites, you are much better starting with a small pilot and gaining some experience and insight. A "what hardware do I need for 50,000 user?" style post in the forums is highly unlikely to get a useful answer.
** Disk space: 160Mb free (min). You will require more free space to store your teaching materials.
 
** Memory: 256Mb (min), 1Gb (recommended). The general rule of thumb is that Moodle can support 50 ''concurrent'' users for every 1Gb of RAM, but this will vary depending on your specific hardware and software combination.
 
* Software
 
** Web server software. Most people use [[Apache]], but Moodle should work fine under any web server that supports [[PHP]], such as [[IIS]] on Windows platforms. PHP does impose requirements on versions of web servers, however these are complex and the general advice is to use the newest version possible of your chosen web server.
 
** PHP scripting language (version 4.1.0 or later). PHP 5 (version 5.1.0 or later) is supported as of Moodle 1.4. (Please note that there have been issues installing Moodle with [http://www.php-accelerator.co.uk PHP-Accelerator]).  From Moodle version 1.6 or later, the minimum version of PHP will be 4.3.0 (or 5.1.0).
 
** A working database server: [[MySQL]] or [[PostgreSQL]] are completely supported and recommended for use with any version of Moodle. Support for Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle has been added in Moodle 1.7. MySQL is ''the'' choice for many people because it is very popular, but there are some [[Arguments in favour of PostgreSQL|arguments in favour of PostgreSQL]], especially if you are planning a large deployment. The minimum version of MySql required for Moodle 1.5 is 3.23. Moodle 1.6 or later requires MySQL 4.1.16 (4.1.12 if you use latin languages only). The minimum version of PostgreSQL is 7.4 and it is widely used with 8.0 and 8.1. Note that currently the MySQL setting "strict mode" should be OFF (set to "" or "MYSQL40") in the MySQL configuration file.
 
* Additional PHP requirements
 
** Safe mode needs to be OFF (check in your php.ini or Apache configuration file).
 
** memory_limit to be at least 16M (32M is recommended for Moodle 1.7 or later).
 
** The mbstring extension is required for multi-byte string handling.
 
** session.save_handler needs to be set to files
 
** The iconv extension is also recommended for Moodle 1.6 or later.
 
** [http://www.boutell.com/gd/ GD library] and the [http://www.freetype.org/ FreeType 2] library on Linux/Unix boxes to be able to look at the dynamic graphs that the logs pages make.
 
** The mysql extension is required if you are using the MySql database. Note that in some Linux distributions (notably Red Hat) this is an optional installation.
 
** The pgsql extension is required if you are using the PostgreSQL database.
 
** The zlib extension is required for zip/unzip functionality
 
** Other PHP extensions may be required to support optional Moodle functionality, especially external authentication and/or enrolment (e.g. LDAP extension for LDAP authentication and the sockets extension for Chat server)
 
  
'''Note if you are using a hosted account''': Most web hosts support all of these requirements by default. You should contact your web host's support desk to check that this is the case '''before''' signing-up with them. If you are already signed up with one of the few web hosts that does not support these features ask them why, and consider taking your business elsewhere if they do not change.
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=== Software ===
  
== How many users? ==
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See the [{{Release notes}} release notes] in the dev docs for software requirements.
  
In addition to the hardware and software requirements, you will also need to think about the capacity of your Moodle installation in terms of the number of users it can handle. There are two numbers to plan for:
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== Set up your server ==
  
* '''Browsing users''': the maximum number of users able to browse your Moodle site. This is the number of computers in your organization or on your course (whichever is greater).
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Depending the use case a Moodle server may be anything from a Desktop PC (e.g. for testing and evaluating) to a rackmounted or [[Server cluster|clustered]] solution. As mentioned above there are lots of possibilities for installing the basic server software, some links and pointers are at [[Installing AMP]], [[Internet_Information_Services|IIS]], [[Nginx]].  
* '''Concurrent database users''': the maximum number of concurrent database users (needed for Moodle activities such as quizzes). This is the number of users who will be using Moodle at the same time. In an educational institution, use your timetable/roster to obtain this figure.
 
  
Once you know these figures for your users, you can start work out if your Moodle installation can support this capacity. The exact number of users depends on your hardware/software/network combination. Usually the amount of memory installed (RAM) is the deciding factor but a faster overall processor speed will also help in reducing waiting times for pages to load.  
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It will help hugely, regardless of your deployment choices, if time is taken to understand how to configure the different parts of your software stack (HTTP daemon, database,  PHP etc). Do not expect the standard server configuration to be optimal for Moodle. For example, the web server and database servers will almost certainly require tuning to get the best out of Moodle.
  
The general rule of thumb for a single server is that the approx max concurrent users = RAM (Gb) * 50 and the approx max browsing users = Approx max concurrent users * 5. As an example, a university with 500 total computers on campus and 100 concurrent users at any time will need approx 2Gb of RAM on the one server to support the number of concurrent users.
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If a hosting provider is being used  ensure that all Moodle [{{Release notes}}#Server_requirements requirements] (such as PHP version) are met by the hosting platform before attempting the installation. It will help to become familiar with changing settings within the hosting provider's platform (e.g. PHP file upload maximums) as the options and tools provided vary.
 
 
'''Note if you are using a hosted account''': Ask your provider what limits are placed on the number of concurrent database connections and the processor load. This will give a good estimate of the number of users your Moodle install can manage.
 
  
 
== Download and copy files into place ==
 
== Download and copy files into place ==
  
There are two ways to get Moodle, either as a compressed package or via CVS.
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'''IMPORTANT: While there are now a number of places you can get the Moodle code (including host provided Moodle installers), you are strongly advised to only obtain Moodle from moodle.org. If you run into problems it will be a great deal easier to support you.'''
* There are two types of compressed packages on the  [http://download.moodle.org/ download page: http://download.moodle.org/], the standard distribution with Moodle only files and the [[Complete install packages|complete install]], which contains programs to operate Moodle in a web environment. 
 
* To use CVS, helpful instructions are available at the [[CVS_for_Administrators | CVS for Administrators]] page. The full [http://moodle.cvs.sourceforge.net/moodle/moodle/ Moodle Sourceforge CVS repository] is also available for browsing.
 
 
 
After downloading, unpack the archive using either
 
tar -zxvf [filename]
 
or
 
unzip [filename]
 
as appropriate.
 
 
 
If using CVS, run the CVS Checkout command.
 
 
 
You will now be left with a directory called "moodle", containing a number of files and folders.
 
 
 
You can either place the whole folder in your web server documents directory, in which case the site will be located at '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com/moodle</nowiki>''', or you can copy all the contents straight into the main web server documents directory, in which case the site will be simply '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com</nowiki>'''.
 
 
 
If you are downloading Moodle to your local computer and then uploading it to your web site, it is usually better to upload the whole archive as one file, and then do the unpacking on the server. Even web hosting interfaces like cPanel allow you to uncompress archives in the "File Manager".
 
 
 
=== Structure of moodle directory ===
 
 
 
You can safely skip this section, but here is a quick summary of the contents of the Moodle folder, to help get you oriented:
 
 
 
:''config.php'' - contains basic settings. This file does not come with Moodle - you will create it.
 
:''install.php'' - the script you will run to create config.php
 
:''version.php'' - defines the current version of Moodle code
 
:''index.php'' - the front page of the site
 
:''admin/'' - code to administrate the whole server
 
:''auth/'' - plugin modules to authenticate users
 
:''blocks/'' - plugin modules for the little side blocks on many pages
 
:''calendar/'' - all the code for managing and displaying calendars
 
:''course/'' - code to display and manage courses
 
:''doc/'' - help documentation for Moodle (eg this page)
 
:''files/'' - code to display and manage uploaded files
 
:''lang/'' - texts in different languages, one directory per language
 
:''lib/'' - libraries of core Moodle code
 
:''login/'' - code to handle login and account creation
 
:''mod/'' - all the main Moodle course modules are in here
 
:''pix/'' - generic site graphics
 
:''theme/'' - theme packs/skins to change the look of the site.
 
:''user/'' - code to display and manage users
 
 
 
== Setting-up your system==
 
To ensure that Moodle will install successfully, you need to check that the web server settings are correct, then create a blank database for Moodle to use and finally create a directory on your hard disk for Moodle to save your materials and other files you upload into your courses.
 
 
 
=== Check web server settings ===
 
 
 
Firstly, make sure that your web server is set up to use index.php as a default page (perhaps in addition to index.html, default.htm and so on). In Apache, this is done using a DirectoryIndex parameter in your httpd.conf file. Mine usually looks like this:
 
 
 
'''DirectoryIndex''' index.php index.html index.htm
 
 
 
Just make sure index.php is in the list (and preferably towards the start of the list, for efficiency).
 
 
 
Secondly, '''if you are using Apache 2''', then you should turn on the ''AcceptPathInfo'' variable, which allows scripts to be passed arguments like <nowiki>http://server/file.php/arg1/arg2</nowiki>. This is essential to allow relative links between your resources, and also provides a performance boost for people using your Moodle web site. You can turn this on by adding these lines to your httpd.conf file.
 
 
 
'''AcceptPathInfo''' on
 
 
 
Thirdly, Moodle requires a number of PHP settings to be active for it to work. '''On most servers these will already be the default settings'''.  However, some PHP servers (and some of the more recent PHP versions) may have things set differently. These are defined in PHP's configuration file (usually called '''php.ini'''):
 
 
 
magic_quotes_gpc = 1    (preferred but not necessary)
 
magic_quotes_runtime = 0    (necessary)
 
file_uploads = 1
 
session.auto_start = 0
 
session.bug_compat_warn = 0
 
 
 
You may also want to set other, optional php.ini file settings while you are already editing it. For instance, you may want to reset the maximum upload size of file attachments, which usually defaults to 2M(egabytes). For instance, to set these to 16 Megabytes:
 
 
post_max_size = 16M
 
upload_max_filesize = 16M
 
 
 
 
 
==== How to Set Overrides ====
 
 
 
Use the above if you can directly edit your server's files, but if you don't have access to '''httpd.conf''' or '''php.ini''' on your server, or you have Moodle on a server with other applications that require different settings, then don't worry, you can often still OVERRIDE the default settings.
 
 
 
To do this, you need to create a file called '''.htaccess''' in Moodle's main directory that contains lines like the following. This only works on Apache servers and only when Overrides have been allowed in the main configuration.
 
 
 
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html index.htm
 
 
 
<IfDefine APACHE2>
 
    '''AcceptPathInfo''' on
 
</IfDefine>
 
 
 
php_flag magic_quotes_gpc 1
 
php_flag magic_quotes_runtime 0
 
php_flag file_uploads 1
 
php_flag session.auto_start 0
 
php_flag session.bug_compat_warn 0
 
 
 
You can also do things like define the maximum size for uploaded files:
 
 
 
LimitRequestBody 0
 
php_value upload_max_filesize 2M
 
php_value post_max_size 2M
 
   
 
The easiest thing to do is just copy the sample file from lib/htaccess and edit it to suit your needs. It contains further instructions. For example, in a Unix shell:
 
 
 
cp lib/htaccess .htaccess
 
 
 
=== Creating an empty database ===
 
 
 
You need to create an empty database (eg "''moodle''") in your database system along with a special user (eg "moodleuser") that has access to that database (and that database only). You could use the "root" user if you wanted to for a test server, but this is not recommended for a production system: if hackers manage to discover the password then your whole database system would be at risk, rather than just one database.
 
 
 
::'''Warning''': Bear in mind that currently (as of 1.5.x) Moodle doesn't work with MySQL 5.x's new strict mode (STRICT_TRANS_TABLES and/or STRICT_ALL_TABLES) setting. So if you are using MySQL 5.x, edit MySQL's configuration file (called "my.ini" in Windows and "my.cnf" on Unix/Linux) and comment out that option or set it to sql-mode="" (single quotes). You have to restart MySQL after changing this setting. <br><br> If you do not have access to your server, use PHPMyAdmin (or another MySQL client) and enter the command SET @@global.sql_mode="" (single quotes); (note the semi-colon).
 
 
 
====Using a hosted server====
 
If you are using a webhost, they will probably have a control panel web interface for you to create your database.
 
 
 
The '''cPanel''' system is one of the most popular of these. To create a database in cPanel,
 
 
 
# Click on the "'''MySQL Databases'''" icon.
 
# Type "moodle" in the database field and click "'''Add Database'''".
 
# Type a username and password (not one you use elsewhere) in the respective fields and click "'''Add User'''".
 
# Now use the "'''Add User to Database'''" button to give this new user account "'''ALL'''" rights to the new database.
 
# Note that the username and database names may be prefixed by your cPanel account name. When entering this information into the Moodle installer - use the full names.
 
 
 
====Using the command line====
 
 
 
If you have access to Unix or Windows command lines then you can do the same sort of thing by typing commands. You should do this using the MySQL Client program
 
 
 
Here are some example MySQL client command lines (the red part is for Moodle 1.6 and later, leave it out for Moodle 1.5.x or earlier):
 
 
 
  # mysql -u root -p
 
  > CREATE DATABASE moodle <font color="red">DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci</font>;
 
  > GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP,INDEX,ALTER ON moodle.*
 
          TO moodleuser@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'yourpassword';
 
  > quit
 
  # mysqladmin -u root -p reload
 
 
 
If you are using MySQL 4.0.2 or later, you need to specify CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES as well in the GRANT statement:
 
 
 
  > GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES,
 
          DROP,INDEX,ALTER ON moodle.*
 
          TO moodleuser@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'yourpassword';
 
 
 
And some example command lines for PostgreSQL:
 
 
 
  # su - postgres
 
  > psql -c "create user moodleuser createdb;" template1
 
  > psql -c "create database moodle <font color="red">with encoding 'unicode'</font>;" -U moodleuser template1
 
  > psql -c "alter user moodleuser nocreatedb;" template1
 
  > psql -c "alter user moodleuser with encrypted password 'yourpassword';" template1
 
  > su - root
 
  # /etc/init.d/postgresql reload
 
 
 
If the Postgres create database command above (>psql -c "create database moodle...") gives an error message you may want to try:
 
psql -c "create database moodle with template=template1 encoding = 'unicode' owner =  moodleuser <br>    location = '/var/mydata';"
 
 
 
=== Creating the data directory (moodledata) ===
 
 
 
Moodle will also need some space on your server's hard disk to store uploaded files, such as course documents and user pictures.
 
  
The Moodle installer tries hard to create this directory for you but if it fails then you will have to create a directory for this purpose manually.
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You have two options:
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* Download your required version from http://moodle.org/downloads and unzip/unpack...
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* '''OR''' Pull the code from the Git repository (recommended for developers and also makes upgrading very simple):
 +
<pre>
 +
$ git clone -b MOODLE_{{Version3}}_STABLE git://git.moodle.org/moodle.git 
 +
</pre>
  
For security, it's best that this directory is NOT accessible directly via the web. The easiest way to do this is to simply locate it OUTSIDE the web directory, but if you must have it in the web directory (and you are using Apache) then protect it by creating a file in the data directory called '''.htaccess''', containing this line:
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Other options you might consider:
  
  deny from all
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* ''--depth=1'' for shallow cloning (only) latest revision (be advised! If you are a developer, you will not be able to easily make git updates and modification later on when this feature is used)
  
To make sure that Moodle can save uploaded files in this directory, check that the web server software has permission to read, write and execute in this directory. On Unix machines, this means setting the owner of the directory to be something like "nobody" or "apache", and then giving that user read, write and execute permissions. To do this you could use:
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* ''--single-branch''  to limit cloning to a single branch, this fetches the Moodle {{Version}} Stable branch (latest weekly build). For a fuller discussion see [[Git for Administrators]].  
  
chown -R nobody:nobody moodledata
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Either of the above should result in a directory called '''moodle''', containing a number of files and folders.
  
Remember by default, mysql won't accept moodle data directories created under ROOT, but otherwise can be located where you wish. You can later move or change the location of this directory, but if you do, be sure to edit the setting in the '''config.php''' file that sets this; e.g. if moodledata is under a directory called data, then it would look like this:
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You can typically place the whole folder in your web server documents directory, in which case the site will be located at '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com/moodle</nowiki>''', or you can copy all the contents straight into the main web server documents directory, in which case the site will be simply '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com</nowiki>'''. See the documentation for your system and/or web server if you are unsure.  
  
$CFG->dataroot  = '/data/moodledata';
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:''Tip:'' If you are downloading Moodle to your local computer and then uploading it to your hosted web site, if possible upload the compressed file and decompress at the remote end (check your 'file manager'). Failing that, watch FTP progress carefully for errors or missed files.
  
On cPanel systems you can use the "File Manager" to find the folder, click on it, then choose "Change Permissions". On many shared hosting servers, you will probably need to restrict all file access to your "group" (to prevent other webhost customers from looking at or changing your files), but provide full read/write access to everyone else (which will allow the web server to access your files).
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* '''Secure the Moodle files:''' It is vital that the files are not writeable by the web server user. For example, on Unix/Linux (as root):
 +
<pre>
 +
# chown -R root /path/to/moodle
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# chmod -R 0755 /path/to/moodle
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# find /path/to/moodle -type f -exec chmod 0644 {} \;
 +
</pre>
 +
(files are owned by the administrator/superuser and are only writeable by them - readable by everyone else)
  
Speak to your server administrator if you are having trouble setting this up securely. In particular it will not be possible to create a usable data directory on sites that use a PHP feature known as "Safe Mode."
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The third command finds all the regular files and executes the chmod command 0644 on them.  
  
== Run the installer script to create config.php ==
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If you want to use the built-in plugin installer you need to make the directory writable by web server user. It is strongly recommended to use ACL when your server supports it, for example if your Apache server uses account www-data:
  
To run the installer script (install.php), just try to access your Moodle main URL using a web browser, or access '''<nowiki>http://yourserver/install.php</nowiki>''' directly.
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<pre>
 +
# chmod -R +a "www-data allow read,delete,write,append,file_inherit,directory_inherit" /path/to/moodle
 +
</pre>
  
(The Installer will try to set a session cookie. If you get a popup warning in your browser make sure you accept that cookie!)
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The effect of the previous command is to allow the Apache user account (www-data in this case) to access and change files within the moodle site. Many people would consider this a brave move for a new site admin to implement. In a new moodle you can safely leave this out. A default Ubuntu install does not have the +a option for the chmod command anyway. The +a attribute is an ACL (Access Control List) facility which allows you to set per user access for individual files. For example, OSX has this by default.
  
Moodle will detect that configuration is necessary and will lead you through some screens to help you create a new configuration file called '''config.php'''. At the end of the process Moodle will try and write the file into the right location, otherwise you can press a button to download it from the installer and then upload '''config.php''' into the main Moodle directory on the server.
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== Create an empty database ==
  
Along the way the installer will test your server environment and give you suggestions about how to fix any problems. For most common issues these suggestions should be sufficient, but if you get stuck, check in the Installation Forum for more help.
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Next create a new, empty database for your installation. You need to find and make a note of following information for use during the final installation stage:
 +
* '''dbhost''' - the database server hostname. Probably ''localhost'' if the database and web server are the same machine, otherwise the name of the database server
 +
* '''dbname''' - the database name. Whatever you called it, e.g. ''moodle''
 +
* '''dbuser''' - the username for the database. Whatever you assigned, e.g. ''moodleuser'' - do not use the root/superuser account. Create a proper account with the minimum permissions needed.
 +
* '''dbpass''' - the password for the above user
  
== Go to the admin page to continue configuration ==
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If your site is hosted you should find a web-based administration page for databases as part of the control panel (or ask your administrator). For everyone else or for detailed instructions, see the page for your chosen database server:
 +
* [[PostgreSQL]] (recommended)
 +
* [[MariaDB]] (recommended)
 +
* [[MySQL]]
 +
* [[MSSQL]]
 +
* [[Oracle]] (not recommended)
  
Once the basic config.php has been correctly created in the previous step, trying to access the front page of your site will take you the "admin" page for the rest of the configuration.
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== Create the (''moodledata'') data directory  ==
  
The first time you access this admin page, you will be presented with a GPL "shrink wrap" agreement with which you must agree before you can continue with the setup.
+
Moodle requires a directory to store all of its files (all your site's uploaded files, temporary data, cache, session data etc.). The web server needs to be able to write to this directory. On larger systems consider how much free space you are going to use when allocating this directory.  
  
Now Moodle will start setting up your database and creating tables to store data. Firstly, the main database tables are created. You should see a number of SQL statements followed by status messages (in green or red) that look like this:
+
Due to the default way Moodle caches data you may have serious performance issues if you use relatively slow storage (e.g. NFS) for this directory. Read the [[Performance_recommendations]] carefully and consider using (e.g.) redis or memcached for [[Caching]].
  
{| border=1
+
'''IMPORTANT:''' This directory must '''NOT''' be accessible directly via the web. This would be a serious security hole. Do not try to place it inside your web root or inside your Moodle program files directory. Moodle will not install. It can go anywhere else convenient.
|<nowiki>CREATE TABLE course ( id int(10) unsigned NOT NULL auto_increment, category int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default '0', password varchar(50) NOT NULL default '', fullname varchar(254) NOT NULL default '', shortname varchar(15) NOT NULL default '', summary text NOT NULL, format tinyint(4) NOT NULL default '1', teacher varchar(100) NOT NULL default 'Teacher', startdate int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default '0', enddate int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default '0', timemodified int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default '0', PRIMARY KEY (id)) TYPE=MyISAM</nowiki>
 
  
<font color="green">SUCCESS</font>
+
Here is an example (Unix/Linux) of creating the directory and setting the permissions for '''anyone''' on the server to write here. This is only appropriate for Moodle servers that are not shared. Discuss this with your server administrator for better permissions that just allow the web server user to access these files.
|}
 
  
...and so on, followed by: <font color="green">Main databases set up successfully.</font>
+
<pre>
 +
# mkdir /path/to/moodledata
 +
# chmod 0777 /path/to/moodledata
 +
</pre>
  
If you don't see these, then there must have been some problem with the database or the configuration settings you defined in config.php. Check that PHP isn't in a restricted "Safe Mode" (commercial web hosts sometimes have safe mode turned on). You can check PHP variables by creating a little file containing '''<?php phpinfo() ?>''' and looking at it through a browser. Check all these and try this page again.
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If your server supports ACL it is recommended to set following permissions, for example if your Apache server uses account www-data:
 +
<pre>
 +
# chmod -R +a "www-data allow read,delete,write,append,file_inherit,directory_inherit" /path/to/moodledata
 +
</pre>
 +
If you are planning to execute PHP scripts from the command line you should set the same permissions for the current user:
 +
<pre>
 +
$ sudo chmod -R +a "`whoami` allow read,delete,write,append,file_inherit,directory_inherit" /path/to/moodledata
 +
</pre>
  
Scroll down the very bottom of the page and press the "Continue" link.
+
==== Securing moodledata in a web directory ====
  
You should now see a form where you can define more configuration variables for your installation, such as the default language, SMTP hosts and so on. Don't worry too much about getting everything right just now - you can always come back and edit these later on using the admin interface. The defaults are designed to be useful and secure for most sites. Scroll down to the bottom and click "Save changes".
+
If you are using a hosted site and you have no option but to place 'moodledata' in a web accessible directory. You may be able to secure it by creating an .htaccess file in the 'moodledata' directory. This does not work on all systems - see your host/administrator. Create a file called .htaccess containing only the following lines:
 +
<pre>
 +
order deny,allow
 +
deny from all
 +
</pre>
  
If (and only if) you find yourself getting stuck on this page, unable to continue, then your server probably has what I call the "buggy referrer" problem. This is easy to fix: just turn off the "secureforms" setting, then try to continue again.
+
== Start Moodle install ==
 +
It's now time to run the installer to create the database tables and configure your new site. The recommended method is to use the command line installer. If you cannot do this for any reason (e.g. on a Windows server) the web-based installer is still available.
  
Next you will see more pages that print lots of status messages as they set up all the tables required by the various Moodle module. As before, they should all be <font color="green">green</font>.
+
=== Command line installer ===
  
Scroll down the very bottom of the page and press the "Continue" link.
+
It's best to run the command line as your system's web user. You need to know what that is - see your system's documentation (e.g. Ubuntu/Debian is 'www-data', Centos is 'apache')
  
The next page is a form where you can define parameters for your Moodle site and the front page, such as the name, format, description and so on. Fill this out (you can always come back and change these later) and then press "Save changes".
+
* Example of using the command-line  (as root - substitute 'www-data' for your web user):
 +
<pre>
 +
# chown www-data /path/to/moodle
 +
# cd /path/to/moodle/admin/cli
 +
# sudo -u www-data /usr/bin/php install.php
 +
# chown -R root /path/to/moodle
 +
</pre>
 +
The chowns allow the script to write a new config.php file. More information about the options can be found using
 +
<pre>
 +
# php install.php --help
 +
</pre>
  
Finally, you will then be asked to create a top-level administration user for future access to the admin pages. Fill out the details with your own name, email etc and then click "Save changes". Not all the fields are required, but if you miss any important fields you'll be re-prompted for them.
+
You will be asked for other settings that have not been discussed on this page - if unsure just accept the defaults. For a full discussion see [[Administration via command line]]
  
'''Make sure you remember the username and password you chose for the administration user account, as they will be necessary to access the administration page in future.'''
+
=== Web based installer ===
  
(If for any reason your install is interrupted, or there is a system error of some kind that prevents you from logging in using the admin account, you can usually log in using the default username of "'''admin'''", with password "'''admin'''".)
+
For ease of use you can install Moodle via the web. We recommend configuring your web server so that the page is not publicly accessible until the installation is complete.
  
Once successful, you will be returned to the home page of your new site! Note the administration links that appear down the left hand side of the page (these items also appear on a separate Admin page) - these items are only visible to you because you are logged in as the admin user. All your further administration of Moodle can now be done using this menu, such as:
+
To run the web installer script, just go to your Moodle's main URL using a web browser.
  
* creating and deleting courses
+
The installation process will take you through a number of pages. You should be asked to confirm the copyright, see the database tables being created, supply administrator account details and supply the site details. The database creation can take some time - please be patient. You should eventually end up at the Moodle front page with an invitation to create a new course.
* creating and editing user accounts
 
* administering teacher accounts
 
* changing site-wide settings like themes etc
 
  
But you are not done installing yet! There is one very important thing still to do (see the next section on cron).
+
It is very likely that you will be asked to download the new config.php file and upload it to your Moodle installation - just follow the on-screen instructions.
  
== Set up cron ==
+
==Final configuration==
  
Please refer to the [[Cron|Cron instructions]].
+
=== Settings within Moodle ===
 +
There are a number of options within the Moodle Site Administration screens (accessible from the 'Site administration' tab in the 'Administration' block. Here are a few of the more important ones that you will probably want to check:
 +
* ''Administration > Site administration > Plugins > Message Outputs > Email'': Set your smtp server and authentication if required (so your Moodle site can send emails). The support contact for your site is also set on this page.
 +
* ''Administration > Site administration > Server > System paths'': Set the paths to du, dot and aspell binaries.
 +
* ''Administration > Site administration > Server > HTTP'': If you are behind a firewall you may need to set your proxy credentials in the 'Web proxy' section.
 +
* ''Administration > Site administration > Location > Update timezones'': Run this to make sure your timezone information is up to date. (more info [[Location]])
 +
** [http://php.net/manual/en/timezones.php Set server's local timezone] inside <tt>php.ini</tt> (should probably be inside <tt>/etc/php.ini</tt> or <tt>/etc/php.d/date.ini</tt>, depending on the underlying OS):
 +
<code php>
 +
[Date]  
 +
; Defines the default timezone used by the date functions
 +
date.timezone = "YOUR LOCAL TIMEZONE"
 +
</code>
  
== Set up backups ==
+
=== Remaining tasks ===
  
Please refer to the [[Backup | Backup instructions]].
+
* '''Configure Cron''': Moodle's background tasks (e.g. sending out forum emails and performing course backups) are performed by a script which you can set to execute at specific times of the day. This is known as a cron script. Please refer to the [[Cron|Cron instructions]].
 +
* '''Set up backups''': See [[Site backup]] and [[Automated course backup]].
 +
* '''Secure your Moodle site''': Read the [[Security recommendations]].
 +
*'''Increasing the maximum upload size'''  See [[Installation FAQ]] Maximum upload file size - how to change it?
 +
* '''Check mail works''' (New in 3.7): From Site administration > Server > Test outgoing mail configuration, use the  link to send yourself a test email. Don't be tempted to skip this step.
  
== Create a new course ==
+
=== Installation is complete :) ===
  
Now that Moodle is running properly, you can try creating a new course to play with.
+
* Create a new course: You can now access Moodle through your web browser (using the same URL as you set during the install process), log in as your admin user and creatse a new course. See  [[Adding a new course|create a new course]].
  
Select "Create a new course" from the Admin page (or the admin links on the home page).
+
=== If something goes wrong... ===
  
Fill out the form, paying special attention to the course format. You don't have to worry about the details too much at this stage, as everything can be changed later by the teacher. Note that the yellow help icons are everywhere to provide contextual help on any aspect.
+
Here are some things you should try...
  
Press "Save changes", and you will be taken to a new form where you can assign teachers to the course. You can only add existing user accounts from this form - if you want to create a new teacher account then either ask the teacher to create one for themselves (see the login page), or create one for them using the "Add a new user" on the Admin page.
+
* Check the [[Installation FAQ]]
 +
* Check your file permissions carefully. Can your web server read (but not write) the Moodle program files? Can your web server read and write your Moodle data directory? If you don't fully understand how file ownership and permissions work on your operating system it would be time very well spent to find out.
 +
* Check your database permissions. Have you set up your database user with the correct rights and permissions for your configuration (especially if the web server and database server are different machines)?
 +
* Create your [[Configuration file]] (config.php) by hand. Copy config-dist.php (in the root of the Moodle program directory) to config.php, edit it and set your database/site options there. Installation will continue from the right place.
 +
* Once you have a config.php (see previous tip) you can edit it to turn on debugging (in section 8). This may give you extra information to help track down a problem. If you have access, check your web server error log(s).
 +
* Re-check your php.ini / .htaccess settings. Are they appropriate (e.g. memory_limit), did you edit the correct php.ini / .htaccess file and (if required) did you re-start the web server after making changes?
 +
* Did you include any non-core (optional) plugins, themes or other code before starting the installation script? If so, remove it and try again (it may be broken or incompatible).
 +
* Explain your problem in the [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/view.php?id=28 Installation problems forum]. '''PLEASE''' list your software versions; explain what you did, what happened and what error messages you saw (if any); explain what you tried. There is no such thing as 'nothing', even a blank page is something!
  
Once done, the course is ready to customize, and is accessible via the "Courses" link on the home page.
+
== Platform specific instructions ==
  
==See also==
+
'''Note:''' Much of this information is provided by the community. It may not have been checked and may be out of date. Please read in conjunction with the above installation instructions.
  
* [[Installation FAQ]]
+
* [[Windows installation]]
*[[Complete install packages]] might be an easier first time installs on some systems
+
** [[Installing Moodle on SmarterASP.NET]]
* [[Installing Apache, MySQL and PHP]] - Open source programs that can run Moodle on the web or on a desktop
+
* [[Unix or Linux Installation]]
* [[Upgrading Moodle]]
+
* [[Mac Installation]]
* Using Moodle [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=42688 Selecting a web host for Moodle] forum discussion
+
* [[Amazon EC2 Cloud Services Installation]]
* [[masquerading|Masquerading]] - Running Moodle behind a masquerading/NAT firewall
 
  
[[Category:Core]]
+
== See also ==
[[Category:Administrator]]
+
* [http://www.slideshare.net/gb2048/my-own-moodle Slideshare presentation by Gareth Barnard on installing a local installation of Moodle] and accompanying [https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B17B0rYH2zERU21sQnVweUZCUFk&usp=sharing  help guides]
[[Category:Installation]]
+
* [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=182086 New Video Tutorial- How to Install Moodle on Shared Hosting via cPanel (Not Fantastico)]
 +
* [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=199542 Video Tutorial - Install Moodle on a Virtual Box from scratch]  
  
[[cs:Instalace]]
+
[[es:Instalaci%C3%B3n_de_moodle]]
[[de:Installieren von Moodle]]
+
[[de:Installation von Moodle]]
[[es:Instalación de moodle]]
 
 
[[fr:Installation de Moodle]]
 
[[fr:Installation de Moodle]]
 
[[ja:Moodleのインストール]]
 
[[ja:Moodleのインストール]]
[[nl:Installatiegids]]
 
[[ru:Установка Moodle]]
 
[[zh:安装Moodlezh:]]
 

Latest revision as of 21:42, 8 September 2019

This page explains how to install Moodle. If you are an expert and/or in a hurry try Installation Quickstart.

If you just want to try Moodle on a standalone machine there are 'one-click' installers for Windows (see Complete install packages for Windows) and for OSX (see Complete Install Packages for Mac OS X) or install on OS X. These are unsuitable for production servers.

Requirements

Moodle is primarily developed in Linux using Apache, PostgreSQL/MySQL/MariaDB and PHP (sometimes known as the LAMP platform). Typically this is also how Moodle is run, although there are other options as long as the software requirements of the release are met.

If you are installing Moodle in a Windows server, note that from php5.5 onwards, you will also need to have the Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2012 installed from: http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=30679 Visual C++] ( x86 or x64)

The basic requirements for Moodle are as follows:

Hardware

  • Disk space: 200MB for the Moodle code, plus as much as you need to store content. 5GB is probably a realistic minimum.
  • Processor: 1GHz (min), 2GHz dual core or more recommended.
  • Memory: 512MB (min), 1GB or more is recommended. 8GB plus is likely on a large production server
  • Consider separate servers for the web "front ends" and the database. It is much easier to "tune"

All the above requirements will vary depending on specific hardware and software combinations as well as the type of use and load; busy sites may well require additional resources. Further guidance can be found under performance recommendations. Moodle scales easily by increasing hardware.

For very large sites, you are much better starting with a small pilot and gaining some experience and insight. A "what hardware do I need for 50,000 user?" style post in the forums is highly unlikely to get a useful answer.

Software

See the release notes in the dev docs for software requirements.

Set up your server

Depending the use case a Moodle server may be anything from a Desktop PC (e.g. for testing and evaluating) to a rackmounted or clustered solution. As mentioned above there are lots of possibilities for installing the basic server software, some links and pointers are at Installing AMP, IIS, Nginx.

It will help hugely, regardless of your deployment choices, if time is taken to understand how to configure the different parts of your software stack (HTTP daemon, database, PHP etc). Do not expect the standard server configuration to be optimal for Moodle. For example, the web server and database servers will almost certainly require tuning to get the best out of Moodle.

If a hosting provider is being used ensure that all Moodle requirements (such as PHP version) are met by the hosting platform before attempting the installation. It will help to become familiar with changing settings within the hosting provider's platform (e.g. PHP file upload maximums) as the options and tools provided vary.

Download and copy files into place

IMPORTANT: While there are now a number of places you can get the Moodle code (including host provided Moodle installers), you are strongly advised to only obtain Moodle from moodle.org. If you run into problems it will be a great deal easier to support you.

You have two options:

  • Download your required version from http://moodle.org/downloads and unzip/unpack...
  • OR Pull the code from the Git repository (recommended for developers and also makes upgrading very simple):
$ git clone -b MOODLE_{{Version3}}_STABLE git://git.moodle.org/moodle.git  

Other options you might consider:

  • --depth=1 for shallow cloning (only) latest revision (be advised! If you are a developer, you will not be able to easily make git updates and modification later on when this feature is used)
  • --single-branch to limit cloning to a single branch, this fetches the Moodle 3.7 Stable branch (latest weekly build). For a fuller discussion see Git for Administrators.

Either of the above should result in a directory called moodle, containing a number of files and folders.

You can typically place the whole folder in your web server documents directory, in which case the site will be located at http://yourwebserver.com/moodle, or you can copy all the contents straight into the main web server documents directory, in which case the site will be simply http://yourwebserver.com. See the documentation for your system and/or web server if you are unsure.

Tip: If you are downloading Moodle to your local computer and then uploading it to your hosted web site, if possible upload the compressed file and decompress at the remote end (check your 'file manager'). Failing that, watch FTP progress carefully for errors or missed files.
  • Secure the Moodle files: It is vital that the files are not writeable by the web server user. For example, on Unix/Linux (as root):
# chown -R root /path/to/moodle
# chmod -R 0755 /path/to/moodle
# find /path/to/moodle -type f -exec chmod 0644 {} \;

(files are owned by the administrator/superuser and are only writeable by them - readable by everyone else)

The third command finds all the regular files and executes the chmod command 0644 on them.

If you want to use the built-in plugin installer you need to make the directory writable by web server user. It is strongly recommended to use ACL when your server supports it, for example if your Apache server uses account www-data:

# chmod -R +a "www-data allow read,delete,write,append,file_inherit,directory_inherit" /path/to/moodle

The effect of the previous command is to allow the Apache user account (www-data in this case) to access and change files within the moodle site. Many people would consider this a brave move for a new site admin to implement. In a new moodle you can safely leave this out. A default Ubuntu install does not have the +a option for the chmod command anyway. The +a attribute is an ACL (Access Control List) facility which allows you to set per user access for individual files. For example, OSX has this by default.

Create an empty database

Next create a new, empty database for your installation. You need to find and make a note of following information for use during the final installation stage:

  • dbhost - the database server hostname. Probably localhost if the database and web server are the same machine, otherwise the name of the database server
  • dbname - the database name. Whatever you called it, e.g. moodle
  • dbuser - the username for the database. Whatever you assigned, e.g. moodleuser - do not use the root/superuser account. Create a proper account with the minimum permissions needed.
  • dbpass - the password for the above user

If your site is hosted you should find a web-based administration page for databases as part of the control panel (or ask your administrator). For everyone else or for detailed instructions, see the page for your chosen database server:

Create the (moodledata) data directory

Moodle requires a directory to store all of its files (all your site's uploaded files, temporary data, cache, session data etc.). The web server needs to be able to write to this directory. On larger systems consider how much free space you are going to use when allocating this directory.

Due to the default way Moodle caches data you may have serious performance issues if you use relatively slow storage (e.g. NFS) for this directory. Read the Performance_recommendations carefully and consider using (e.g.) redis or memcached for Caching.

IMPORTANT: This directory must NOT be accessible directly via the web. This would be a serious security hole. Do not try to place it inside your web root or inside your Moodle program files directory. Moodle will not install. It can go anywhere else convenient.

Here is an example (Unix/Linux) of creating the directory and setting the permissions for anyone on the server to write here. This is only appropriate for Moodle servers that are not shared. Discuss this with your server administrator for better permissions that just allow the web server user to access these files.

# mkdir /path/to/moodledata
# chmod 0777 /path/to/moodledata

If your server supports ACL it is recommended to set following permissions, for example if your Apache server uses account www-data:

# chmod -R +a "www-data allow read,delete,write,append,file_inherit,directory_inherit" /path/to/moodledata

If you are planning to execute PHP scripts from the command line you should set the same permissions for the current user:

$ sudo chmod -R +a "`whoami` allow read,delete,write,append,file_inherit,directory_inherit" /path/to/moodledata

Securing moodledata in a web directory

If you are using a hosted site and you have no option but to place 'moodledata' in a web accessible directory. You may be able to secure it by creating an .htaccess file in the 'moodledata' directory. This does not work on all systems - see your host/administrator. Create a file called .htaccess containing only the following lines:

order deny,allow
deny from all

Start Moodle install

It's now time to run the installer to create the database tables and configure your new site. The recommended method is to use the command line installer. If you cannot do this for any reason (e.g. on a Windows server) the web-based installer is still available.

Command line installer

It's best to run the command line as your system's web user. You need to know what that is - see your system's documentation (e.g. Ubuntu/Debian is 'www-data', Centos is 'apache')

  • Example of using the command-line (as root - substitute 'www-data' for your web user):
# chown www-data /path/to/moodle
# cd /path/to/moodle/admin/cli
# sudo -u www-data /usr/bin/php install.php
# chown -R root /path/to/moodle

The chowns allow the script to write a new config.php file. More information about the options can be found using

# php install.php --help

You will be asked for other settings that have not been discussed on this page - if unsure just accept the defaults. For a full discussion see Administration via command line

Web based installer

For ease of use you can install Moodle via the web. We recommend configuring your web server so that the page is not publicly accessible until the installation is complete.

To run the web installer script, just go to your Moodle's main URL using a web browser.

The installation process will take you through a number of pages. You should be asked to confirm the copyright, see the database tables being created, supply administrator account details and supply the site details. The database creation can take some time - please be patient. You should eventually end up at the Moodle front page with an invitation to create a new course.

It is very likely that you will be asked to download the new config.php file and upload it to your Moodle installation - just follow the on-screen instructions.

Final configuration

Settings within Moodle

There are a number of options within the Moodle Site Administration screens (accessible from the 'Site administration' tab in the 'Administration' block. Here are a few of the more important ones that you will probably want to check:

  • Administration > Site administration > Plugins > Message Outputs > Email: Set your smtp server and authentication if required (so your Moodle site can send emails). The support contact for your site is also set on this page.
  • Administration > Site administration > Server > System paths: Set the paths to du, dot and aspell binaries.
  • Administration > Site administration > Server > HTTP: If you are behind a firewall you may need to set your proxy credentials in the 'Web proxy' section.
  • Administration > Site administration > Location > Update timezones: Run this to make sure your timezone information is up to date. (more info Location)
    • Set server's local timezone inside php.ini (should probably be inside /etc/php.ini or /etc/php.d/date.ini, depending on the underlying OS):
[Date] 
; Defines the default timezone used by the date functions 
date.timezone = "YOUR LOCAL TIMEZONE"

Remaining tasks

  • Configure Cron: Moodle's background tasks (e.g. sending out forum emails and performing course backups) are performed by a script which you can set to execute at specific times of the day. This is known as a cron script. Please refer to the Cron instructions.
  • Set up backups: See Site backup and Automated course backup.
  • Secure your Moodle site: Read the Security recommendations.
  • Increasing the maximum upload size See Installation FAQ Maximum upload file size - how to change it?
  • Check mail works (New in 3.7): From Site administration > Server > Test outgoing mail configuration, use the link to send yourself a test email. Don't be tempted to skip this step.

Installation is complete :)

  • Create a new course: You can now access Moodle through your web browser (using the same URL as you set during the install process), log in as your admin user and creatse a new course. See create a new course.

If something goes wrong...

Here are some things you should try...

  • Check the Installation FAQ
  • Check your file permissions carefully. Can your web server read (but not write) the Moodle program files? Can your web server read and write your Moodle data directory? If you don't fully understand how file ownership and permissions work on your operating system it would be time very well spent to find out.
  • Check your database permissions. Have you set up your database user with the correct rights and permissions for your configuration (especially if the web server and database server are different machines)?
  • Create your Configuration file (config.php) by hand. Copy config-dist.php (in the root of the Moodle program directory) to config.php, edit it and set your database/site options there. Installation will continue from the right place.
  • Once you have a config.php (see previous tip) you can edit it to turn on debugging (in section 8). This may give you extra information to help track down a problem. If you have access, check your web server error log(s).
  • Re-check your php.ini / .htaccess settings. Are they appropriate (e.g. memory_limit), did you edit the correct php.ini / .htaccess file and (if required) did you re-start the web server after making changes?
  • Did you include any non-core (optional) plugins, themes or other code before starting the installation script? If so, remove it and try again (it may be broken or incompatible).
  • Explain your problem in the Installation problems forum. PLEASE list your software versions; explain what you did, what happened and what error messages you saw (if any); explain what you tried. There is no such thing as 'nothing', even a blank page is something!

Platform specific instructions

Note: Much of this information is provided by the community. It may not have been checked and may be out of date. Please read in conjunction with the above installation instructions.

See also