There are several ways to track student progress in Moodle. This page outlines what is available to teachers in a course.
Every course has its own Gradebook which is accessible from Course administration > Gradebook setup. Some activities such as Assignment and Quiz send grades back to this gradebook. It is also possible for teachers to enter grades directly into the gradebook.
Competencies describe the level of understanding or proficiency of a learner in certain subject-related skills. Competency-based education (CBE), also known as Competency-based learning or Skills-based learning, refers to systems of assessment and grading where students demonstrate these competencies.
If Activity completion is enabled by the administrator and in the course settings, teachers can indicate for each course item how they wish it to be registered as complete. A tick/checkmark will then appear against the activity. Students may either mark it complete manually or the item will automatically be registered as complete once a student has met the specified criteria. These may be viewing a resource, submitting an assignment, posting in a forum or other conditions. The teacher can see an overview of who has completed what in the activity completion report in Course administration > Reports > Activity completion.
As an extension of activity completion, enabling Course completion allows for a course to be officially marked as finished, either manually or automatically according to speficied criteria. If the Course completion status block is added, students can see their progress during the course. Teachers can view the overall progress of students towards course completion from Course administration>Reports>Course completion.
Badges can be awarded either manually or using activity completion settings in a course and are a popular way to motivate students. Students may be awarded badges at different stages of the course for different levels of progress.
A number of Course reports are available to the teacher in their course to help them track the progress of their students. In addition to the activity and course completion reports mentioned above (which are only available if these settings are enabled) there are also activity reports, participation reports and general course logs.
The Analytics feature, in Moodle 3.4 onwards, provides detailed descriptive and prescriptive reports to support learners at risk.