Difference between revisions of "Site backup"

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Note: You are currently viewing documentation for Moodle 2.9. Up-to-date documentation for the latest stable version of Moodle may be available here: Site backup.

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{{Backup}}
 
A site backup allows a site administrator to save everything associated with a moodle site. These backups can be restored to bring a site back to the point in time when the backup was made.   
 
A site backup allows a site administrator to save everything associated with a moodle site. These backups can be restored to bring a site back to the point in time when the backup was made.   
  
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A Moodle system comprises three parts:
 
A Moodle system comprises three parts:
# The data stored in the '''[[Development:Database schema introduction|database]]''' (For example, a MySQL database)
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# The data stored in the database (For example, a MySQL database)
# The uploaded '''[[Files|files]]''' (For example, site and course files uploaded via Moodle located in moodledata)
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# The uploaded files (For example, site and course files uploaded via Moodle located in moodledata)
 
# The '''Moodle code''' (For example, everything in server/htdocs/moodle)
 
# The '''Moodle code''' (For example, everything in server/htdocs/moodle)
 
You can confirm where all these things are located in a Moodle installation by checking the '''[[Configuration file|config.php]]''' file.  
 
You can confirm where all these things are located in a Moodle installation by checking the '''[[Configuration file|config.php]]''' file.  
  
:# '''$CFG->dbna''' shows the database name
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:# '''$CFG->dbname''' shows the database name
 
:# '''$CFG->prefix''' shows the the database table name prefix
 
:# '''$CFG->prefix''' shows the the database table name prefix
 
:# '''$CFG->dataroot''' controls where the ''uploaded files'' are stored; and
 
:# '''$CFG->dataroot''' controls where the ''uploaded files'' are stored; and
:# '''$CFG->dirroot''' points to where the ''code'' is stored.
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:# '''$CFG->wwwroot''' points to where the ''code'' is stored.
  
 
;Tip  
 
;Tip  
Generally speaking, the database ("dbna and prefix") and the uploaded files (dataroot) are the two most important to copy on a regular basis. These contain information that will change most often.  
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Generally speaking, the database ("dbname and prefix") and the uploaded files (dataroot) are the two most important to copy on a regular basis. These contain information that will change most often.  
  
The Moodle code (dirroot) is less important as a frequent backup, since it will only change when the the actual code is changed through upgrades, addins and code tweaks. You can always get a copy of the standard Moodle code from http://download.moodle.org so you only have to backup the part you added or changed yourself.
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The Moodle code (wwwroot) is less important as a frequent backup, since it will only change when the the actual code is changed through upgrades, addins and code tweaks. You can always get a copy of the standard Moodle code from http://download.moodle.org so you only have to backup the parts you added or changed yourself.
  
 
== Creating a backup of your Moodle site ==
 
== Creating a backup of your Moodle site ==
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* You might use a compression program  to create compact files (tar, zip. 7z, XZ, BZIP2, GZIP, and WIM are a few file formats) of the entire directory.  This can be done before or after file transfers.
 
* You might use a compression program  to create compact files (tar, zip. 7z, XZ, BZIP2, GZIP, and WIM are a few file formats) of the entire directory.  This can be done before or after file transfers.
  
:''Tip:'' Typically not all moodledata files change between regular/periodic backups. A new Administrator might want to look into [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incremental_backup incremental or other efficient backups]] procedures. Depending upon the operating environment there are [[Tools for backing up server files|many tools]] and ways of backing up moodledata.
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; Tips
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* Typically not all moodledata files change between regular/periodic backups. A new Administrator might want to look into [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incremental_backup incremental or other efficient backups] procedures.  
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* Depending upon the operating environment there are many tools for backing up server files and ways of backing up moodledata.  See [[Tools_for_backing_up_server_files]] for tips on using rsync, FTP or Wget.
  
 
=== Moodle code ===
 
=== Moodle code ===
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;Tip
 
;Tip
 
It is always a good idea to have several backup copies of your Moodle code files.  While you can always download a fresh base copy of the Moodle code from http://download.moodle.org, you might have customized that code. It is a good idea to create a separate backup of your Moodle code before you customize the code.  This includes installing [[Contributed code]], [[Themes]] and upgrading.
 
It is always a good idea to have several backup copies of your Moodle code files.  While you can always download a fresh base copy of the Moodle code from http://download.moodle.org, you might have customized that code. It is a good idea to create a separate backup of your Moodle code before you customize the code.  This includes installing [[Contributed code]], [[Themes]] and upgrading.
 
 
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
 
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* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5rwTy3sNh0 Screencast: How to back up a Moodle site] (thanks to Bruce Chambr)
*[[Backup and restore FAQ]]
 
 
*[[Site restore]] Now that you have a backup, how to restore it
 
*[[Site restore]] Now that you have a backup, how to restore it
*[[Automated course backup]]
 
*[http://www.moodletutorials.org/view_video.php?viewkey=e257e44aa9d5bade97ba Video showing how to backup a whole Moodle site (on Linux)]
 
 
* [[Moodle migration]] - move a Moodle site to a different server
 
* [[Moodle migration]] - move a Moodle site to a different server
 
* Using Moodle [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=140949 Site DatabaseBackup Using phpMyAdmin] forum discussion
 
* Using Moodle [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=140949 Site DatabaseBackup Using phpMyAdmin] forum discussion
 
* [[Site Backup for Low-tech Users]]
 
* [[Site Backup for Low-tech Users]]
* [[Course backup]] A course backup is done within the Moodle interface
 
[[Category:Backup]]
 
  
 
[[de:Sicherung der Moodle-Installation]]
 
[[de:Sicherung der Moodle-Installation]]
 
[[ja:サイトバックアップ]]
 
[[ja:サイトバックアップ]]
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[[es:Copia de seguridad del sitio]]
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[[fr:Sauvegarde de site]]

Latest revision as of 09:31, 13 January 2015

A site backup allows a site administrator to save everything associated with a moodle site. These backups can be restored to bring a site back to the point in time when the backup was made.

Performing regular backups are highly recommended to reduce the amount of lost information in the event of a problem on the site and to speed the overall recovery process.

What needs to be backed up?

A Moodle system comprises three parts:

  1. The data stored in the database (For example, a MySQL database)
  2. The uploaded files (For example, site and course files uploaded via Moodle located in moodledata)
  3. The Moodle code (For example, everything in server/htdocs/moodle)

You can confirm where all these things are located in a Moodle installation by checking the config.php file.

  1. $CFG->dbname shows the database name
  2. $CFG->prefix shows the the database table name prefix
  3. $CFG->dataroot controls where the uploaded files are stored; and
  4. $CFG->wwwroot points to where the code is stored.
Tip

Generally speaking, the database ("dbname and prefix") and the uploaded files (dataroot) are the two most important to copy on a regular basis. These contain information that will change most often.

The Moodle code (wwwroot) is less important as a frequent backup, since it will only change when the the actual code is changed through upgrades, addins and code tweaks. You can always get a copy of the standard Moodle code from http://download.moodle.org so you only have to backup the parts you added or changed yourself.

Creating a backup of your Moodle site

Database

The right way to back up your database depends on which database system you are using. The instructions below are one way to back up a MySQL database. Another option would be to use a tool like phpMyAdmin to manually make a backup. The documentation for your database will give more options.

There are many ways to do such backups. Here is an outline of a little script you can run on Unix to backup the database (it works well to have such a script run daily via a cron task):

cd /my/backup/directory
mv moodle-database.sql.gz moodle-database-old.sql.gz
mysqldump -h example.com -u myusername --password=mypassword -C -Q -e --create-options mydatabasename > moodle-database.sql
gzip moodle-database.sql

Character encoding

Make sure that a database backup uses the correct character encoding. In most databases, use UTF-8.

When dumping the entire Moodle database, check for possible character encoding issues. In some instances, backups created with mysqldump or phpMyAdmin may not properly encode all of the data. This will result in non-readable characters when the database is restored.

Tip: One solution is to use MySQL Administrator 1.1 or another tool that will force a UTF-8 dump of the data.

Tools for database backups

phpMyAdmin
phpMyAdmin is the tool of choice with most web hosting providers.
MySQLDumper
MySQLDumper is a backup script for MySQL databases, written in PHP and Perl. MySQLDumper uses a proprietary technique to avoid execution interruption when running PHP scripts (the max. execution time is usually set to 30 seconds). MySQLDumper also cares for the encoding problems mentioned above. It also works with compressed files and allows setting up regular cron jobs for updating and updating to a remote FTP site.

Uploaded files (moodledata)

Through the Moodle interface, users can upload or create files and folders. These are located in a directory, often called "moodledata". Since they are just files and folders, there are many different ways to backup or copy moodledata.

  • For example, using a file transfer program, copy the entire moodledata directory to a different area, drive or computer. Example of file transfer programs include: FTP, WinSP, wget, rsync.
  • You might use a compression program to create compact files (tar, zip. 7z, XZ, BZIP2, GZIP, and WIM are a few file formats) of the entire directory. This can be done before or after file transfers.
Tips
  • Typically not all moodledata files change between regular/periodic backups. A new Administrator might want to look into incremental or other efficient backups procedures.
  • Depending upon the operating environment there are many tools for backing up server files and ways of backing up moodledata. See Tools_for_backing_up_server_files for tips on using rsync, FTP or Wget.

Moodle code

Backing up the Moodle code, will be similar to backing up moodledata. See Tools for backing up server files.

Tip

It is always a good idea to have several backup copies of your Moodle code files. While you can always download a fresh base copy of the Moodle code from http://download.moodle.org, you might have customized that code. It is a good idea to create a separate backup of your Moodle code before you customize the code. This includes installing Contributed code, Themes and upgrading.

See also