Difference between revisions of "Installing Moodle"

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Note: You are currently viewing documentation for Moodle 2.3. Up-to-date documentation for the latest stable version is available here: Installing Moodle.

(Creating a data directory)
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'''Firstly don't panic! :-)'''
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{{Template:Installing Moodle}}
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''This page explains how to install Moodle. If you are an expert and/or in a hurry try [[Installation Quickstart]].''
  
This guide explains how to install Moodle for the first time. For some of these steps it goes into a lot of detail to try and cover the majority of possible web server setups, so this page may look long and complicated. Don't panic, once you know how to do it you can install Moodle in minutes!
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If you just want to try Moodle on a standalone machine there are 'one-click' installers for Windows (see [[Complete install packages for Windows]]) and for OSX (see [[Complete Install Packages for Mac OS X]]). These are unsuitable for production servers.  
  
If you have problems please read this page carefully - most common issues are answered in here. If you still have trouble, you can seek help from the Moodle community via [http://moodle.org/course/view.php?id=5 moodle.org Using Moodle].
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== Requirements ==
  
Another option is to contact a [http://moodle.com/hosting/ Moodle Partner providing Moodle hosting] who can completely maintain Moodle for you, so that you can ignore all this and get straight into educating!
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Moodle is primarily developed in Linux using [[Apache]], [[MySQL]] and [[PHP]] (also sometimes known as the LAMP platform). If in doubt, this is the safest combination (if for no other reason than being the most common). There are other options - see the Software section that follows:
  
==Requirements==
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The basic requirements for Moodle are as follows:
  
Moodle is primarily developed in Linux using [[Apache]], [[MySQL]] and [[PHP]] (also sometimes known as the LAMP platform), but is also regularly tested with PostgreSQL and on Windows XP, Mac OS X and Netware 6 operating systems.
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=== Hardware ===
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* Disk space: 160MB free (min) plus as much as you need to store your materials. 5GB is probably a realistic minimum.
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* Backups: at least the same again (at a remote location preferably) as above to keep backups of your site
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* Memory: 256MB (min), 1GB or more is strongly recommended. The general rule of thumb is that Moodle can support 10 to 20 ''concurrent'' users for every 1GB of RAM, but this will vary depending on your specific hardware and software combination and the type of use. 'Concurrent' really means web server processes in memory at the same time (i.e. users interacting with the system within a window of a few seconds). It does NOT mean people 'logged in'.
  
The requirements for Moodle are as follows:
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=== Software ===
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* An operating system (!). Anything that runs the following software; although the choice will most likely depend on the performance you need and the skills you have available. Linux and Windows are the most common choices (and good support is available). If you have a free choice, Linux is generally regarded to be the optimal platform. Moodle is also regularly tested with Windows XP/2000/2003, Solaris 10 (Sparc and x64), Mac OS X and Netware 6 operating systems.
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* Web server. Primarily [[Apache]] or [[IIS]]. Not fully tested (or supported) but should work are [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lightttpd], [http://nginx.org/ nginx], [http://www.cherokee-project.com/ cherokee], zeus and [http://litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed]. Moodle will refuse to install on any other web server. Your web server needs to be correctly configured to serve PHP files.The version is not critical but try to use the newest web server build available to you.
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* [[PHP]] - The minimum version is currently 5.3.2. A number of extensions are required; see the [[PHP]] page for full details. Installation will halt at the environment check if any of the required extensions are missing.
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* A database. MySQL and PostgreSQL are the primary development database, the most comprehensively tested and have extensive documentation and support. Oracle and MSSQL are fully supported (note that optional plugins may be untested with these databases) but documentation and online help are not as comprehensive as MySQL/PostgreSQL. If in doubt use MySQL (more documentation) or PostgreSQL (better stability/performance). You will need the appropriate PHP extension (configured if need be) for your chosen database.
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** [[MySQL]] - minimum version 5.1.33
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** [[PostgreSQL]] - minimum version 8.3
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** [[MSSQL]] - minimum version 9.0
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** [[Oracle]] - minimum version 10.2
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** [[SQLite]] - minimum version 2.0
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* Minimum browser for accessing Moodle: Firefox 4, Internet Explorer 8, Safari 5, Google Chrome 11, Opera 9 plus whatever plugins and applications you will need for the content you plan to use.
  
* Web server software. Most people use [[Apache]], but Moodle should work fine under any web server that supports [[PHP]], such as [[IIS]] on Windows platforms. PHP does impose requirements on versions of web servers, however these are complex and the general advice is to use the newest version possible of your chosen web server.
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== Set up your server ==
* PHP scripting language (version 4.1.0 or later). PHP 5 (version 5.1.0 or later) is supported as of Moodle 1.4. (Please note that there have been issues installing Moodle with [http://www.php-accelerator.co.uk PHP-Accelerator]).  From Moodle version 1.6, the minimum version of PHP will be 4.3.0 (or 5.1.0).
 
* a working database server: [[MySQL]] or [[PostgreSQL]] are completely supported and recommended for use with Moodle. MySQL is ''the'' choice for many people because it is very popular, but there are some [[Arguments in favour of PostgreSQL|arguments in favour of PostgreSQL]], especially if you are planning a large deployment. The minimum version of MySql required for Moodle 1.5 is 3.23. Moodle 1.6 requires MySQL 4.1.16 (4.1.12 if you use latin languages only). The minimum version of PostgreSQL is 7.4 and it is widely used with 8.0 and 8.1.
 
  
Most web hosts support all of this by default. If you are signed up with one of the few webhosts that does not support these features ask them why, and consider taking your business elsewhere.
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...or desktop computer, if you are just evaluating Moodle. There are lots of possibilities for installing the basic server software depending on your particular choices. Some links and pointers are at [[Installing AMP]]
  
If you want to run Moodle on your own computer and all this looks a bit daunting, then please see our guide: [[Installing Apache, MySQL and PHP]]. It provides some step-by-step instructions to install all this on most popular platforms.
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If you are using a hosted server all this should be done for you. However, (especially on shared hosting) make sure you understand or find out how to change PHP settings (e.g. file upload maximums). This can vary a huge amount from host to host.
 
 
Additional requirements:
 
 
 
PHP Extensions:
 
* [http://www.boutell.com/gd/ GD library] and the [http://www.freetype.org/ FreeType 2] library on Linux/Unix boxes to be able to look at the dynamic graphs that the logs pages make.
 
* mbstring - is required for multi-byte string handling. (iconv is also recommended for Moodle 1.6)
 
* the mysql extension is required if you are using the MySql database. Note that in some Linux distributions (notably Red Hat) this is an optional installation.
 
* the pgsql extension is required if you are using the PostgreSQL database.
 
* the zlib extension is required for zip/unzip functionality
 
* other PHP extensions may be required to support optional Moodle functionality, especially external authentication and/or enrolment (e.g., LDAP extension)
 
  
 
== Download and copy files into place ==
 
== Download and copy files into place ==
  
There are two ways to get Moodle, as a compressed package or via CVS. These compressed packages are on the download page: http://download.moodle.org/ and the instructions for using CVS are at  [[CVS_for_Administrators]].
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'''IMPORTANT: While there are now a number of places you can get the Moodle code, you are strongly advised to obtain Moodle from moodle.org. If you run into problems it will be a great deal easier to support you.'''
 
 
After downloading and unpacking the archive, or checking out the files via CVS, you will be left with a directory called "moodle", containing a number of files and folders.
 
 
 
You can either place the whole folder in your web server documents directory, in which case the site will be located at '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com/moodle</nowiki>''', or you can copy all the contents straight into the main web server documents directory, in which case the site will be simply '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com</nowiki>'''.
 
 
 
If you are downloading Moodle to your local computer and then uploading it to your web site, it is usually better to upload the whole archive as one file, and then do the unpacking on the server. Even web hosting interfaces like Cpanel allow you to uncompress archives in the "File Manager".
 
 
 
== Site structure ==
 
 
 
You can safely skip this section, but here is a quick summary of the contents of the Moodle folder, to help get you oriented:
 
 
 
:''config.php'' - contains basic settings. This file does not come with Moodle - you will create it.
 
:''install.php'' - the script you will run to create config.php
 
:''version.php'' - defines the current version of Moodle code
 
:''index.php'' - the front page of the site
 
:''admin/'' - code to administrate the whole server
 
:''auth/'' - plugin modules to authenticate users
 
:''blocks/'' - plugin modules for the little side blocks on many pages
 
:''calendar/'' - all the code for managing and displaying calendars
 
:''course/'' - code to display and manage courses
 
:''doc/'' - help documentation for Moodle (eg this page)
 
:''files/'' - code to display and manage uploaded files
 
:''lang/'' - texts in different languages, one directory per language
 
:''lib/'' - libraries of core Moodle code
 
:''login/'' - code to handle login and account creation
 
:''mod/'' - all the main Moodle course modules are in here
 
:''pix/'' - generic site graphics
 
:''theme/'' - theme packs/skins to change the look of the site.
 
:''user/'' - code to display and manage users
 
 
 
== Run the installer script to create config.php ==
 
 
 
To run the installer script (install.php), just try to access your Moodle main URL using a web browser, or access '''<nowiki>http://yourserver/install.php</nowiki>''' directly.
 
 
 
(The Installer will try to set a session cookie. If you get a popup warning in your browser make sure you accept that cookie!)
 
 
 
Moodle will detect that configuration is necessary and will lead you through some screens to help you create a new configuration file called '''config.php'''. At the end of the process Moodle will try and write the file into the right location, otherwise you can press a button to download it from the installer and then upload '''config.php''' into the main Moodle directory on the server.
 
 
 
Along the way the installer will test your server environment and give you suggestions about how to fix any problems. For most common issues these suggestions should be sufficient, but if you get stuck, look below for more information about some of common things that might be holding you up.
 
 
 
=== Check web server settings ===
 
 
 
Firstly, make sure that your web server is set up to use index.php as a default page (perhaps in addition to index.html, default.htm and so on). In Apache, this is done using a DirectoryIndex parameter in your httpd.conf file. Mine usually looks like this:
 
 
 
'''DirectoryIndex''' index.php index.html index.htm
 
 
 
Just make sure index.php is in the list (and preferably towards the start of the list, for efficiency).
 
 
 
Secondly, '''if you are using Apache 2''', then you should turn on the ''AcceptPathInfo'' variable, which allows scripts to be passed arguments like <nowiki>http://server/file.php/arg1/arg2</nowiki>. This is essential to allow relative links between your resources, and also provides a performance boost for people using your Moodle web site. You can turn this on by adding these lines to your httpd.conf file.
 
 
 
'''AcceptPathInfo''' on
 
 
 
Thirdly, Moodle requires a number of PHP settings to be active for it to work. '''On most servers these will already be the default settings'''.  However, some PHP servers (and some of the more recent PHP versions) may have things set differently. These are defined in PHP's configuration file (usually called '''php.ini'''):
 
 
 
magic_quotes_gpc = 1    (preferred but not necessary)
 
magic_quotes_runtime = 0    (necessary)
 
file_uploads = 1
 
session.auto_start = 0
 
session.bug_compat_warn = 0
 
 
 
If you don't have access to '''httpd.conf''' or '''php.ini''' on your server, or you have Moodle on a server with other applications that require different settings, then don't worry, you can often still OVERRIDE the default settings.
 
 
 
To do this, you need to create a file called '''.htaccess''' in Moodle's main directory that contains lines like the following. This only works on Apache servers and only when Overrides have been allowed in the main configuration.
 
 
 
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html index.htm
 
 
 
<IfDefine APACHE2>
 
    '''AcceptPathInfo''' on
 
</IfDefine>
 
 
 
php_flag magic_quotes_gpc 1
 
php_flag magic_quotes_runtime 0
 
php_flag file_uploads 1
 
php_flag session.auto_start 0
 
php_flag session.bug_compat_warn 0
 
 
 
You can also do things like define the maximum size for uploaded files:
 
 
 
LimitRequestBody 0
 
php_value upload_max_filesize 2M
 
php_value post_max_size 2M
 
   
 
The easiest thing to do is just copy the sample file from lib/htaccess and edit it to suit your needs. It contains further instructions. For example, in a Unix shell:
 
 
 
cp lib/htaccess .htaccess
 
 
 
=== Creating a database ===
 
 
 
You need to create an empty database (eg "''moodle''") in your database system along with a special user (eg "moodleuser") that has access to that database (and that database only). You could use the "root" user if you wanted to for a test server, but this is not recommended for a production system: if hackers manage to discover the password then your whole database system would be at risk, rather than just one database.
 
 
 
::Bear in mind that currently (as of 1.5.x) Moodle doesn't work with MySQL 5.x's new "STRICT_TRANS_TABLES" setting. So if you are using MySQL 5.x, edit MySQL's configuration file (called "my.ini" in Windows and "my.cnf" on Unix/Linux) and comment out that option (or simply delete it). You have to restart MySQL after changing this setting.
 
 
 
If you are using a webhost, they will probably have a control panel web interface for you to create your database.
 
 
 
The '''Cpanel''' system is one of the most popular of these. To create a database in Cpanel,
 
 
 
# Click on the "'''MySQL Databases'''" icon.
 
# Type "moodle" in the database field and click "'''Add Database'''".
 
# Type a username and password (not one you use elsewhere) in the respective fields and click "'''Add User'''".
 
# Now use the "'''Add User to Database'''" button to give this new user account "'''ALL'''" rights to the new database.
 
# Note that the username and database names may be prefixed by your Cpanel account name. When entering this information into the Moodle installer - use the full names.
 
 
 
If you have access to Unix command lines then you can do the same sort of thing by typing commands.
 
 
 
Here are some example Unix command lines for MySQL (the red part is for Moodle 1.6 and later, leave it out for Moodle 1.5.x or earlier):
 
 
 
  # mysql -u root -p
 
  > CREATE DATABASE moodle <font color="red">DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci</font>;
 
  > GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP,INDEX,ALTER ON moodle.*
 
          TO moodleuser@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'yourpassword';
 
  > quit
 
  # mysqladmin -p reload
 
 
 
If you are using MySQL 4.0.2 or later, you need to specify CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES as well in the GRANT statement:
 
 
 
  > GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES,
 
          DROP,INDEX,ALTER ON moodle.*
 
          TO moodleuser@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'yourpassword';
 
 
 
And some example command lines for PostgreSQL:
 
 
 
  # su - postgres
 
  > psql -c "create user moodleuser createdb;" template1
 
  > psql -c "create database moodle <font color="red">with encoding 'unicode'</font>;" -U moodleuser template1
 
  > psql -c "alter user moodleuser nocreatedb;" template1
 
  > psql -c "alter user moodleuser with encrypted password 'yourpassword';" template1
 
  > su - root
 
  # /etc/init.d/postgresql reload
 
 
 
=== Creating a data directory ===
 
 
 
Moodle will also need some space on your server's hard disk to store uploaded files, such as course documents and user pictures.
 
 
 
The Moodle installer tries hard to create this directory for you but if it fails then you will have to create a directory for this purpose manually.
 
  
For security, it's best that this directory is NOT accessible directly via the web. The easiest way to do this is to simply locate it OUTSIDE the web directory, but if you must have it in the web directory then protect it by creating a file in the data directory called .htaccess, containing this line:
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You have two options:
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* Download your required version from http://moodle.org/downloads and unzip/unpack...
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* '''OR''' Pull the code from the Git repository (recommended for developers and also makes upgrading very simple):
 +
<pre>
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$ git clone -b MOODLE_23_STABLE git://git.moodle.org/moodle.git
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</pre>
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...this fetches a complete copy of the Moodle repository and then switches to the 2.3 Stable branch (latest weekly build). For a fuller discussion see [[Git for Administrators]].
 +
Either of the above should result in a directory called '''moodle''', containing a number of files and folders.
  
deny from all
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You can either place the whole folder in your web server documents directory, in which case the site will be located at '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com/moodle</nowiki>''', or you can copy all the contents straight into the main web server documents directory, in which case the site will be simply '''<nowiki>http://yourwebserver.com</nowiki>'''. See the documentation for your system and/or web server if you are unsure.
  
To make sure that Moodle can save uploaded files in this directory, check that the web server software (eg Apache) has permission to read, write and execute in this directory.
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:''Tip:'' If you are downloading Moodle to your local computer and then uploading it to your hosted web site, if possible upload the compressed file and decompress at the remote end (check your 'file manager'). Failing that, watch FTP progress carefully for errors or missed files.
  
On Unix machines, this means setting the owner of the directory to be something like "nobody" or "apache", and then giving that user read, write and execute permissions.
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==Secure the Moodle files==
  
To do this you could use:
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It is vital that the files are not writeable by the web server user. For example, on Unix/Linux (as root):
chown -R nobody:nobody moodledata
 
  
Remember by default, mysql won't accept moodle data directories created under ROOT.
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<pre>
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# chown -R root /path/to/moodle
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# chmod -R 0755 /path/to/moodle
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</pre>
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(files are owned by the administrator/superuser and are only writeable by them - readable by everyone else)
  
On Cpanel systems you can use the "File Manager" to find the folder, click on it, then choose "Change Permissions". On many shared hosting servers, you will probably need to restrict all file access to your "group" (to prevent other webhost customers from looking at or changing your files), but provide full read/write access to everyone else (which will allow the web server to access your files).
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In Windows make sure your 'IUSR' user(s) only have read permissions, definitely not modify.  
  
Speak to your server administrator if you are having trouble setting this up securely. In particular some sites that use a PHP feature known as "Safe Mode" may ''require'' the administrator to create this directory properly for you.
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'''Don't skip this step. Your site is vulnerable to hackers if you do.'''
  
== Go to the admin page to continue configuration ==
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== Create an empty database ==
  
Once the basic config.php has been correctly created in the previous step, trying to access the front page of your site will take you the "admin" page for the rest of the configuration.
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Next create a new, empty database for your installation. You need to find and make a note of following information for use during the final installation stage:
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* '''dbhost''' - the database server hostname. Probably ''localhost'' if the database and web server are the same machine, otherwise the name of the database server
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* '''dbname''' - the database name. Whatever you called it, e.g. ''moodle''
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* '''dbuser''' - the username for the database. Whatever you assigned, e.g. ''moodleuser'' - do not use the root/superuser account. Create a proper account with the minimum permissions needed.
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* '''dbpass''' - the password for the above user
  
The first time you access this admin page, you will be presented with a GPL "shrinkwrap" agreement with which you must agree before you can continue with the setup.
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If your site is hosted you should find a web-based administration page for databases as part of the control panel (or ask your administrator). For everyone else or for detailed instructions, see the page for your chosen database server:
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* [[MySQL]]
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* [[PostgreSQL]]
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* [[MSSQL]]
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* [[Oracle]]
  
Now Moodle will start setting up your database and creating tables to store data. Firstly, the main database tables are created. You should see a number of SQL statements followed by status messages (in green or red) that look like this:
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== Create the (''moodledata'') data directory  ==
  
{| border=1
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Moodle requires a directory to store all of its files (all your site's uploaded files, temporary data, session data etc.). The web server needs to be able to write to this directory. On larger systems consider how much free space you are going to use when allocating this directory.
|<nowiki>CREATE TABLE course ( id int(10) unsigned NOT NULL auto_increment, category int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default '0', password varchar(50) NOT NULL default '', fullname varchar(254) NOT NULL default '', shortname varchar(15) NOT NULL default '', summary text NOT NULL, format tinyint(4) NOT NULL default '1', teacher varchar(100) NOT NULL default 'Teacher', startdate int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default '0', enddate int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default '0', timemodified int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default '0', PRIMARY KEY (id)) TYPE=MyISAM</nowiki>
 
  
<font color="green">SUCCESS</font>
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'''IMPORTANT:''' This directory must '''NOT''' be accessible directly via the web. This would be a serious security hole. Do not try to place it inside your web root or inside your Moodle program files directory. Moodle will not install. It can go anywhere else convenient.
|}
 
  
...and so on, followed by: <font color="green">Main databases set up successfully.</font>
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Here is an example (Unix/Linux) of creating the directory and setting the permissions for '''anyone''' on the server to write here. This is only appropriate for Moodle servers that are not shared. Discuss this with your server administrator for other scenarios...
 +
<pre>
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# mkdir /path/to/moodledata
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# chmod 0777 /path/to/moodledata
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</pre>
  
If you don't see these, then there must have been some problem with the database or the configuration settings you defined in config.php. Check that PHP isn't in a restricted "Safe Mode" (commercial web hosts sometimes have safe mode turned on). You can check PHP variables by creating a little file containing '''<?php phpinfo() ?>''' and looking at it through a browser. Check all these and try this page again.
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==== Securing moodledata in a web directory ====
  
Scroll down the very bottom of the page and press the "Continue" link.
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If you are using a hosted site and you have no option but to place 'moodledata' in a web accessible directory. You may be able to secure it by creating an .htaccess file in the 'moodledata' directory. This does not work on all systems - see your host/administrator. Create a file called .htaccess containing only the following lines:
 +
<pre>
 +
order deny,allow
 +
deny from all
 +
</pre>
  
You should now see a form where you can define more configuration variables for your installation, such as the default language, SMTP hosts and so on. Don't worry too much about getting everything right just now - you can always come back and edit these later on using the admin interface. The defaults are designed to be useful and secure for most sites. Scroll down to the bottom and click "Save changes".
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== Start Moodle install ==
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It's now time to run the installer to create the database tables and configure your new site. The recommended method is to use the command line installer. If you cannot do this for any reason (e.g. on a Windows server) the web based installer is still available.
  
If (and only if) you find yourself getting stuck on this page, unable to continue, then your server probably has what I call the "buggy referrer" problem. This is easy to fix: just turn off the "secureforms" setting, then try to continue again.
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=== Command line installer ===
  
Next you will see more pages that print lots of status messages as they set up all the tables required by the various Moodle module. As before, they should all be <font color="green">green</font>.
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It's best to run the command line installer as your system's web user. You need to know what that is - see your system's documentation (e.g. Ubuntu/Debian is 'www-data', Centos is 'apache')
  
Scroll down the very bottom of the page and press the "Continue" link.
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* Example of using the command-line installer (as root - substitute 'www-data' for your web user):
 +
<pre>
 +
# chown www-data /path/to/moodle
 +
# cd /path/to/moodle/admin/cli
 +
# sudo -u www-data /usr/bin/php install.php
 +
# chown -R root /path/to/moodle
 +
</pre>
 +
The chowns allow the script to write a new config.php file. More information about the options can be found using
 +
<pre>
 +
# php install.php --help
 +
</pre>
  
The next page is a form where you can define parameters for your Moodle site and the front page, such as the name, format, description and so on. Fill this out (you can always come back and change these later) and then press "Save changes".
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You will be asked for other settings that have not been discussed on this page - if unsure just accept the defaults. For a full discussion see [[Administration via command line]]
  
Finally, you will then be asked to create a top-level administration user for future access to the admin pages. Fill out the details with your own name, email etc and then click "Save changes". Not all the fields are required, but if you miss any important fields you'll be re-prompted for them.
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=== Web based installer ===
 +
To run the web installer script, just go to your Moodle's main URL using a web browser.
  
'''Make sure you remember the username and password you chose for the administration user account, as they will be necessary to access the administration page in future.'''
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The installation process will take you through a number of pages. You should be asked to confirm the copyright, see the database tables being created, supply administrator account details and supply the site details. The database creation can take some time - please be patient. You should eventually end up at the Moodle front page with an invitation to create a new course.  
  
(If for any reason your install is interrupted, or there is a system error of some kind that prevents you from logging in using the admin account, you can usually log in using the default username of "'''admin'''", with password "'''admin'''".)
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It is very likely that you will be asked to download the new config.php file and upload it to your Moodle installation - just follow the on-screen instructions.  
  
Once successful, you will be returned to the home page of your new site! Note the administration links that appear down the left hand side of the page (these items also appear on a separate Admin page) - these items are only visible to you because you are logged in as the admin user. All your further administration of Moodle can now be done using this menu, such as:
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==Final configuration==
  
* creating and deleting courses
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=== Settings within Moodle ===
* creating and editing user accounts
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There are a number of options within the Moodle Site Administration screens (accessible from the 'Site administration' tab in the 'Settings' block. Here are a few of the more important ones that you will probably want to check:
* administering teacher accounts
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* ''Settings > Site administration > Server > Email'': Set your smtp server and authentication if required (so your Moodle site can send emails). The support contact for your site is also set on this page.
* changing site-wide settings like themes etc
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* ''Settings > Site administration > Server > System paths'': Set the paths to du, dot and aspell binaries.
 +
* ''Settings > Site administration > Server > HTTP'': If you are behind a firewall you may need to set your proxy credentials in the 'Web proxy' section.
 +
* ''Settings > Site administration > Location > Update timezones'': Run this to make sure your timezone information is up to date.
  
But you are not done installing yet! There is one very important thing still to do (see the next section on cron).
+
=== Remaining tasks ===
  
== Set up cron ==
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* '''Configure Cron''': Moodle's background tasks (e.g. sending out forum emails and performing course backups) are performed by a script which you can set to execute at specific times of the day. This is known as a cron script. Please refer to the [[Cron|Cron instructions]].
 +
* '''Set up backups''': See [[Site backup]] and [[Automated course backup]].
 +
* '''Check mail works''': [[Add a new user|Create a test user]] with a valid email address and [[message|send them a message]]. Do they receive an email copy of the message? If not, check the settings in ''Settings > Site administration > Plugins > Message outputs > Email''.
 +
* '''Secure your Moodle site''': Read the [[Security recommendations]].
  
Please refer to the [[Cron|cron instructions]].
+
=== Installation is complete :) ===
  
== Create a new course ==
+
* Create a new course: You can now [[Adding a new course|create a new course]] and have a play ;-)
  
Now that Moodle is running properly, you can try creating a new course to play with.
+
== If something goes wrong... ==
  
Select "Create a new course" from the Admin page (or the admin links on the home page).
+
Here are some things you should try...
  
Fill out the form, paying special attention to the course format. You don't have to worry about the details too much at this stage, as everything can be changed later by the teacher. Note that the yellow help icons are everywhere to provide contextual help on any aspect.
+
* Check the [[Installation FAQ]]
 +
* Check your file permissions carefully. Can your web server read (but not write) the Moodle program files? Can your web server read and write your Moodle data directory?
 +
* Check your database permissions. Have you set up your database user with the correct rights and permissions for your configuration (especially if the web server and database server are different machines)?
 +
* If you are having trouble creating a [[Configuration file]] (config.php), you can do it manually by copying config-dist.php (in the root of the Moodle program directory) to config.php, editing it and setting your database/site options there. Installation will continue from the right place.  
 +
* Once you have a config.php (see previous tip) you can edit it to turn on debugging (in section 8). This may give you extra information to help track down a problem. If you have access, check your web server error log(s).
 +
* Re-check your php.ini / .htaccess settings. Are they appropriate (e.g. memory_limit), did you edit the correct php.ini / .htaccess file and (if required) did you re-start the web server after making changes?
 +
* Did you include any non-core (optional) plugins, themes or other code before starting the installation script? If so, remove it and try again (it may be broken or incompatible).
 +
* Explain your problem in the [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/view.php?id=28 Installation problems forum]. '''PLEASE''' list your software versions; explain what you did, what happened and what error messages you saw (if any); explain what you tried. There is no such thing as 'nothing', even a blank page is something!
  
Press "Save changes", and you will be taken to a new form where you can assign teachers to the course. You can only add existing user accounts from this form - if you want to create a new teacher account then either ask the teacher to create one for themselves (see the login page), or create one for them using the "Add a new user" on the Admin page.
+
== Platform specific instructions ==
  
Once done, the course is ready to customise, and is accessible via the "Courses" link on the home page.
+
'''Note:''' Much of this information is provided by the community. It may not have been checked and may be out of date. Please read in conjunction with the above installation instructions.
  
==See also==
+
* [[Windows installation]]
 +
* [[Unix or Linux Installation]]
 +
* [[Mac Installation]]
 +
* [[Amazon EC2 Cloud Services Installation]]
  
* [[Installation FAQ]]
+
== See also ==
* [[Installing Apache, MySQL and PHP]]
 
* [[Upgrading Moodle]]
 
* [[Windows installation|Windows installation]]
 
* [[RedHat Linux installation|Step by Step Installation Guide for RedHat]]
 
* [[Debian GNU/Linux installation|Step by Step Installation Guide for Debian GNU/Linux]]
 
* Using Moodle [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=42688 Selecting a webhost for Moodle] forum discussion
 
* [[masquerading]] - Running Moodle behind a masquerading/NAT firewall
 
  
[[Category:Core]]
+
* [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=182086 New Video Tutorial- How to Install Moodle on Shared Hosting via cPanel (Not Fantastico)]
[[Category:Administrator]]
+
* [http://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=199542 Video Tutorial - Install Moodle on a Virtual Box from scratch]  
[[Category:Installation]]
 
  
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[[fr:Installation de Moodle]]
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Latest revision as of 12:21, 18 January 2013

This page explains how to install Moodle. If you are an expert and/or in a hurry try Installation Quickstart.

If you just want to try Moodle on a standalone machine there are 'one-click' installers for Windows (see Complete install packages for Windows) and for OSX (see Complete Install Packages for Mac OS X). These are unsuitable for production servers.

Requirements

Moodle is primarily developed in Linux using Apache, MySQL and PHP (also sometimes known as the LAMP platform). If in doubt, this is the safest combination (if for no other reason than being the most common). There are other options - see the Software section that follows:

The basic requirements for Moodle are as follows:

Hardware

  • Disk space: 160MB free (min) plus as much as you need to store your materials. 5GB is probably a realistic minimum.
  • Backups: at least the same again (at a remote location preferably) as above to keep backups of your site
  • Memory: 256MB (min), 1GB or more is strongly recommended. The general rule of thumb is that Moodle can support 10 to 20 concurrent users for every 1GB of RAM, but this will vary depending on your specific hardware and software combination and the type of use. 'Concurrent' really means web server processes in memory at the same time (i.e. users interacting with the system within a window of a few seconds). It does NOT mean people 'logged in'.

Software

  • An operating system (!). Anything that runs the following software; although the choice will most likely depend on the performance you need and the skills you have available. Linux and Windows are the most common choices (and good support is available). If you have a free choice, Linux is generally regarded to be the optimal platform. Moodle is also regularly tested with Windows XP/2000/2003, Solaris 10 (Sparc and x64), Mac OS X and Netware 6 operating systems.
  • Web server. Primarily Apache or IIS. Not fully tested (or supported) but should work are lightttpd, nginx, cherokee, zeus and LiteSpeed. Moodle will refuse to install on any other web server. Your web server needs to be correctly configured to serve PHP files.The version is not critical but try to use the newest web server build available to you.
  • PHP - The minimum version is currently 5.3.2. A number of extensions are required; see the PHP page for full details. Installation will halt at the environment check if any of the required extensions are missing.
  • A database. MySQL and PostgreSQL are the primary development database, the most comprehensively tested and have extensive documentation and support. Oracle and MSSQL are fully supported (note that optional plugins may be untested with these databases) but documentation and online help are not as comprehensive as MySQL/PostgreSQL. If in doubt use MySQL (more documentation) or PostgreSQL (better stability/performance). You will need the appropriate PHP extension (configured if need be) for your chosen database.
  • Minimum browser for accessing Moodle: Firefox 4, Internet Explorer 8, Safari 5, Google Chrome 11, Opera 9 plus whatever plugins and applications you will need for the content you plan to use.

Set up your server

...or desktop computer, if you are just evaluating Moodle. There are lots of possibilities for installing the basic server software depending on your particular choices. Some links and pointers are at Installing AMP

If you are using a hosted server all this should be done for you. However, (especially on shared hosting) make sure you understand or find out how to change PHP settings (e.g. file upload maximums). This can vary a huge amount from host to host.

Download and copy files into place

IMPORTANT: While there are now a number of places you can get the Moodle code, you are strongly advised to obtain Moodle from moodle.org. If you run into problems it will be a great deal easier to support you.

You have two options:

  • Download your required version from http://moodle.org/downloads and unzip/unpack...
  • OR Pull the code from the Git repository (recommended for developers and also makes upgrading very simple):
$ git clone -b MOODLE_23_STABLE git://git.moodle.org/moodle.git 

...this fetches a complete copy of the Moodle repository and then switches to the 2.3 Stable branch (latest weekly build). For a fuller discussion see Git for Administrators. Either of the above should result in a directory called moodle, containing a number of files and folders.

You can either place the whole folder in your web server documents directory, in which case the site will be located at http://yourwebserver.com/moodle, or you can copy all the contents straight into the main web server documents directory, in which case the site will be simply http://yourwebserver.com. See the documentation for your system and/or web server if you are unsure.

Tip: If you are downloading Moodle to your local computer and then uploading it to your hosted web site, if possible upload the compressed file and decompress at the remote end (check your 'file manager'). Failing that, watch FTP progress carefully for errors or missed files.

Secure the Moodle files

It is vital that the files are not writeable by the web server user. For example, on Unix/Linux (as root):

# chown -R root /path/to/moodle
# chmod -R 0755 /path/to/moodle

(files are owned by the administrator/superuser and are only writeable by them - readable by everyone else)

In Windows make sure your 'IUSR' user(s) only have read permissions, definitely not modify.

Don't skip this step. Your site is vulnerable to hackers if you do.

Create an empty database

Next create a new, empty database for your installation. You need to find and make a note of following information for use during the final installation stage:

  • dbhost - the database server hostname. Probably localhost if the database and web server are the same machine, otherwise the name of the database server
  • dbname - the database name. Whatever you called it, e.g. moodle
  • dbuser - the username for the database. Whatever you assigned, e.g. moodleuser - do not use the root/superuser account. Create a proper account with the minimum permissions needed.
  • dbpass - the password for the above user

If your site is hosted you should find a web-based administration page for databases as part of the control panel (or ask your administrator). For everyone else or for detailed instructions, see the page for your chosen database server:

Create the (moodledata) data directory

Moodle requires a directory to store all of its files (all your site's uploaded files, temporary data, session data etc.). The web server needs to be able to write to this directory. On larger systems consider how much free space you are going to use when allocating this directory.

IMPORTANT: This directory must NOT be accessible directly via the web. This would be a serious security hole. Do not try to place it inside your web root or inside your Moodle program files directory. Moodle will not install. It can go anywhere else convenient.

Here is an example (Unix/Linux) of creating the directory and setting the permissions for anyone on the server to write here. This is only appropriate for Moodle servers that are not shared. Discuss this with your server administrator for other scenarios...

# mkdir /path/to/moodledata
# chmod 0777 /path/to/moodledata

Securing moodledata in a web directory

If you are using a hosted site and you have no option but to place 'moodledata' in a web accessible directory. You may be able to secure it by creating an .htaccess file in the 'moodledata' directory. This does not work on all systems - see your host/administrator. Create a file called .htaccess containing only the following lines:

order deny,allow
deny from all

Start Moodle install

It's now time to run the installer to create the database tables and configure your new site. The recommended method is to use the command line installer. If you cannot do this for any reason (e.g. on a Windows server) the web based installer is still available.

Command line installer

It's best to run the command line installer as your system's web user. You need to know what that is - see your system's documentation (e.g. Ubuntu/Debian is 'www-data', Centos is 'apache')

  • Example of using the command-line installer (as root - substitute 'www-data' for your web user):
# chown www-data /path/to/moodle
# cd /path/to/moodle/admin/cli
# sudo -u www-data /usr/bin/php install.php
# chown -R root /path/to/moodle

The chowns allow the script to write a new config.php file. More information about the options can be found using

# php install.php --help

You will be asked for other settings that have not been discussed on this page - if unsure just accept the defaults. For a full discussion see Administration via command line

Web based installer

To run the web installer script, just go to your Moodle's main URL using a web browser.

The installation process will take you through a number of pages. You should be asked to confirm the copyright, see the database tables being created, supply administrator account details and supply the site details. The database creation can take some time - please be patient. You should eventually end up at the Moodle front page with an invitation to create a new course.

It is very likely that you will be asked to download the new config.php file and upload it to your Moodle installation - just follow the on-screen instructions.

Final configuration

Settings within Moodle

There are a number of options within the Moodle Site Administration screens (accessible from the 'Site administration' tab in the 'Settings' block. Here are a few of the more important ones that you will probably want to check:

  • Settings > Site administration > Server > Email: Set your smtp server and authentication if required (so your Moodle site can send emails). The support contact for your site is also set on this page.
  • Settings > Site administration > Server > System paths: Set the paths to du, dot and aspell binaries.
  • Settings > Site administration > Server > HTTP: If you are behind a firewall you may need to set your proxy credentials in the 'Web proxy' section.
  • Settings > Site administration > Location > Update timezones: Run this to make sure your timezone information is up to date.

Remaining tasks

  • Configure Cron: Moodle's background tasks (e.g. sending out forum emails and performing course backups) are performed by a script which you can set to execute at specific times of the day. This is known as a cron script. Please refer to the Cron instructions.
  • Set up backups: See Site backup and Automated course backup.
  • Check mail works: Create a test user with a valid email address and send them a message. Do they receive an email copy of the message? If not, check the settings in Settings > Site administration > Plugins > Message outputs > Email.
  • Secure your Moodle site: Read the Security recommendations.

Installation is complete :)

If something goes wrong...

Here are some things you should try...

  • Check the Installation FAQ
  • Check your file permissions carefully. Can your web server read (but not write) the Moodle program files? Can your web server read and write your Moodle data directory?
  • Check your database permissions. Have you set up your database user with the correct rights and permissions for your configuration (especially if the web server and database server are different machines)?
  • If you are having trouble creating a Configuration file (config.php), you can do it manually by copying config-dist.php (in the root of the Moodle program directory) to config.php, editing it and setting your database/site options there. Installation will continue from the right place.
  • Once you have a config.php (see previous tip) you can edit it to turn on debugging (in section 8). This may give you extra information to help track down a problem. If you have access, check your web server error log(s).
  • Re-check your php.ini / .htaccess settings. Are they appropriate (e.g. memory_limit), did you edit the correct php.ini / .htaccess file and (if required) did you re-start the web server after making changes?
  • Did you include any non-core (optional) plugins, themes or other code before starting the installation script? If so, remove it and try again (it may be broken or incompatible).
  • Explain your problem in the Installation problems forum. PLEASE list your software versions; explain what you did, what happened and what error messages you saw (if any); explain what you tried. There is no such thing as 'nothing', even a blank page is something!

Platform specific instructions

Note: Much of this information is provided by the community. It may not have been checked and may be out of date. Please read in conjunction with the above installation instructions.

See also