DB layer 2.0 examples

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Moodle 2.0


Dropping one enum from one field

In Moodle 2.0, we have discontinued support for ENUM (check constraint) in DB columns. See MDL-18577 about that. So, any plugin using enums in Moodle 1.9 will need to drop them as part of the upgrade to Moodle 2.0. To achieve that, as commented in the migration docs, the drop_enum_from_field() method will be used. Here it's one real example used to drop the enum defined in the forum->type column as part of the upgrade from Moodle 1.9 to 2.0 (just adjust it for your own needs):

/// Dropping all enums/check contraints from core. MDL-18577
    if ($result && $oldversion < 2009042700) {
 
    /// Changing list of values (enum) of field type on table forum to none
        $table = new xmldb_table('forum');
        $field = new xmldb_field('type', XMLDB_TYPE_CHAR, '20', null, XMLDB_NOTNULL, null, 'general', 'course');
 
    /// Launch change of list of values for field type
        $dbman->drop_enum_from_field($table, $field);
 
    /// forum savepoint reached
        upgrade_mod_savepoint($result, 2009042700, 'forum');
    }

Mixing query params and IN params

As you know, in Moodle 2.0 we are using placeholders for all the parameters passed to any SQL statement (see G6. Also, we use one special function to convert any list of values to the proper IN/EQUAL clause and associated params (see G7).

But what happens when we want to mix both type of params (query params and IN params) in the same query? Here it's one example:

Objective: return the number of forum discussion per course belonging to a given list of courses (IN params) and one type of forum (query param).

/// Here it's the query param (we are looking for 'general' forums in this example)
    $queryparams = array('general');
 
/// Here we calculate the IN clause (the list of courses we are going to search)
/// it returns 2 values: the SQL IN clause needed and the params array to be applied
    list($insql, $inparams) = $DB->get_in_or_equal(array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6));
 
/// Here it's the query we are going to execute, with the IN clause injected in place
    $sql = "SELECT f.course, COUNT(*) count
              FROM {forum} f
              JOIN {forum_discussions} d ON d.forum = f.id
             WHERE f.type = ?
                   AND f.course $insql
          GROUP BY f.course";
 
/// Here we merge all params (query ones and IN clause ones,
/// respecting the order they are used in the query!)
    $params = array_merge($queryparams, $inparams);
 
/// Execute the query, returning the expected count per course
    $records = $DB->get_records_sql($sql, $params);

Note that is really important to respect the order of the params when merging them in case you are using question mark placeholders in your query. Alternatively, you can use named params if you want to skip that ordering potential issue, specially if your query is very complex or highly dynamic. Here it's the same example using named params (see the 2nd param used in the get_in_or_equal() method call), that's all :

/// Here it's the query param (we are looking for 'general' forums in this example)
    $queryparams = array('forum_type' => 'general');
 
/// Here we calculate the IN clause (the list of courses we are going to search)
/// it returns 2 values: the SQL IN clause needed and the params array to be applied
    list($insql, $inparams) = $DB->get_in_or_equal(array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), SQL_PARAMS_NAMED);
 
/// Here it's the query we are going to execute, with the IN clause injected in place
    $sql = "SELECT f.course, COUNT(*) count
              FROM {forum} f
              JOIN {forum_discussions} d ON d.forum = f.id
             WHERE f.type = :forum_type
                   AND f.course $insql
          GROUP BY f.course";
 
/// Here we merge all params (query ones and IN clause ones,
/// as we are using named params, order isn't important)
    $params = array_merge($inparams, $queryparams);
 
/// Execute the query, returning the expected count per course
    $records = $DB->get_records_sql($sql, $params);

See also

  • XMLDB Documentation: where both xmldb and ddl stuff is explained.
  • Database coding guidelines: where some basic rules to follow are defined.
  • DDL functions - Documentation for all the Data Definition Language (DDL) functions available inside Moodle.
  • DML functions - Documentation for all the Data Manipulation Language (DML) functions available inside Moodle